Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Though it may sound heartless and selfish, the needs and aims of countries usually are the primary factor controlling their foreign relations. During the period of the czars, from 1547 to 1917, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s need for land and modernization shaped its relationships with Western Europe and the Ottoman Empire, causing RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders to respect and imitate Western Europe while competing with the European powers to fill the power vacuum of the failing Ottoman Empire. Russia emerged as a significant power during the 1500s through war. It fought its neighbors and expanded its territory aimlessly. Ivan the TerribleÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion brought him into contact with both Western Europe and the Ottoman Empire. Aiming to gain a port and outlet to the Baltic,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Peter recognized that his country was falling behind the European countries in knowledge, technology, trade, and governing ability. Using his absolute power as a czar, he brought in foreign advisers to help him modernize, westernize and educate his people. Peter had a great respect for Europe, and his reforms had a lasting influence in Russia, though there was of course opposition from the more conservative nobles. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s respect did not translate into friendship with Western Europe. These countries were his competitors, his rivals, and one could say that by modernizing Peter was really trying to beat them at their own game. He fought a long war against Sweden and with victory finally gained possession of ports on the Baltic that opened the way for greater trade with Western Europe.Ã¢â¬ ¨Meanwhile, Peter continued RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to expand at the Ottoman EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s expense. His short war in 1710-11 was a failure, though, and nearly resulted in his own capture. In spite of this loss, it was obvious to Peter and the rest of Europe that the Ottoman Empire was in an irreversible decline. The Ottomans were quite a contrast to Europe: outdated in technology and military methods, politically unstable, and scarcely able to control their far-flung empire. It was left to PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s successor, Catherine II, to take advantage of this. She waged the first major Russo-Turkish war from 1768 to 1774, and its conclusion with the Treaty ofShow MoreRelatedCCOT And CC Essay1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAfrica Compare and contrast life in foraging societies with life in agricultural societies after the Agricultural Revolution Identify two key changes in early African history that resulted in a new period in the history of the region The Middle East Analyze the political changes in the Middle East from the Agricultural Revolution to 600 c.e. Compare and contrast the basic features of TWO of the following religious systems prior to 600 c.e. Polytheism Judaism Christianity Asia Compare the originsRead MoreHistory Essay3334 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesChange-Over-Time Essay Question Describe and explain continuities and changes in religious beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sub-Saharan Africa Ã¢â¬ ¢ Latin America/Caribbean Revised Question Analyze continuities and changes in cultural beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sub-Saharan Africa Ã¢â¬ ¢ Latin America/Caribbean Rationale for Revision: By broadening the scope of the original question from Ã¢â¬Å"religiousRead MoreJust Whatever1974 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdocuments by explicitly grouping them in at least three appropriate ways. 2000 DBQ: Using specific examples from the documents below, analyze the purposes that rituals and festivals served in traditional European life. Free Response A. Compare and contrast the political and economic policies of Joseph Stalin in the period before the Second world War and those of Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991). B. Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership determines the fate of a country.Ã¢â¬ Evaluate this quotation in terms of SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s experienceRead MoreEssay Reveiw4144 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesAP Essay Review 17th Century Affairs 1. How did the disintegration of the medieval church and the coming of the Reformation contribute to the development of nation-states in Western Europe between 1450 and 1648? a. Thesis: Rise of absolutism came at the expense of the medieval church, absolutism laid the foundation for the modern-nation state. Supporting Info: (main body) 1. German princes: LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s Reformation = more power for princes. They have greater control of political affairs and national
Monday, December 16, 2019
The field of Organizational Behavior (B) Is performance-oriented. 2. Mary Foulest was opposed to TailorÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of specific attention to human needs and relationships In the workplace. We will write a custom essay sample on Midterm study guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. Individual performance Is the foundation of organization performance. 4. African-Americans are one of the fastest-growing groups in the U. S. Employee workforce, as are Asians and Hispanics. 5. A new industrial era began in the United States around the time of the Civil War. 6. A major goal of Capos is to treat its employees and customers with integrity, honesty, and commitment. 7. The formal and modern study of management started around 1900. 8. In 1886, an engineer named Frederick W. Taylor presented a paper on scientific management at a national meeting of engineers that was titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Engineer as an Economist. Ã¢â¬ 9. TailorÃ¢â¬â¢s major thesis was that maximum good for society can come only through the cooperation of management and labor In the application of scientific methods. 10. Managers must deal simultaneously with the Internal and external aspects of organizational behavior. 11. J. M. Curran and W. Edwards Deeming, In the sassÃ¢â¬â¢s, introduced the Importance of quality to the public. . Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. 13. A psychological contract is unwritten agreement between an employee and the organization that specifies what each expects to give to and receive from the other. 14. One of the most powerful influences on individual performance is an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s reward system. 15. Power is the ability to get someone to do something you want done, or to make things happen the way you want them to happen. 16. Measures of satisfaction include employee attitudes, turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, and grievances. 17. Common hysterical symptoms that are related to stress Include: Insomnia, excessive perspiration, nervousness, or irritability. Other answers may also be correct, such as overeating, weight gain, weight loss, nail balling, or headaches. 18. Describe the findings of the Hawthorne studies. Chapter 2 1. Organizations can achieve effectiveness only when employees share values. 2. The acceptance of unequal power differs across countries. 3. In countries in which people display high power distance, employees acknowledge the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and typically follow the chain of command. Although culture canÃ¢â¬â¢t be seen, it can be ensued or felt through employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes, emotions, and perceptions. 5. The Southwest airlines approach is to hire for attitude and train the skill. 6. Research indicates that a majority of managers have had at least one mentoring relationship during their careers. 7. The values, norms, customs, and rituals of cultures are Influenced by politics, religion and language. 8. Hypotheses five value dimensions are power distance, Individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation. 9. The concept of uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which How to cite Midterm study guide, Papers Midterm Study Guide Free Essays
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Augustine starts his first book of the Confessions by praising the Lord and making reference to the Psalms. He asks how to pray and call upon God and to know more about his nature. Augustine continues his story of growing up, and explains that he learned to talk not because he was taught it but because God gave him the gift of learning. He goes on to talk about how he was beaten and punished when he messed up reading or writing in school. This is when he learned to pray and he prayed to God that he would stop getting beaten and he would stop messing up. Augustine believed that God gave us eternal life when he sent his son down to us to sacrifice his life for the sake of us. Augustine became very ill and begged to be baptized before he died. His father (Patrick) was the only person in the family who had not converted over to Christianity, but he never tried to stop anyone from pursuing their faith and what they believed in. We will write a custom essay sample on St. Augustine on His Book Confessions or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Augustine never liked reading books and was rebellious towards anything anyone tried to teach him. He also said that if there was any good in him at all, that it was a reflection of God not himself. Augustine starts his second book of Confessions out with a confession of the sins he experienced as a teenage boy. He has become fully aware now that his one desire was simply to love and be loved. St. Augustine had started to hang out with a bad group of kids and he was always feeling that he had to impress his friends by participating in wrong doings with them, such as Augustine says later, Friendship can be a dangerous enemy,. Augustine feels that adolescence is a stage to test whether or not you will be able to resist taking part in evil doings. In St. AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s third book of Confessions Augustine had reached a point where he almost didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a relationship with God anymore it was so bad. Around this time that is when St. Augustine began get more into the Manichaean faith. This faith was an early heretical form of Christianity. Augustine went on to read a book on this faith called Hortensius and he was pushed away from the faith after reading it because of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s influence talking to him about Jesus Christ. This book is what led him to read the Christian Bible. In AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth book of Confessions he graduates from his studies in Carthage and got his degree to become a teacher. He moved back to Thagaste to become a teacher of oratory and rhetoric. His main skill was being able to speak and write in a very persuasive way. He was still a follower of the Manichaean religion. Augustine also explains why he was so obsessed with the impermanent things of life. Any attachment to any object on this earth he says will always result in misery because it will always die out eventually. Only the attachment to God and any other eternal things can make a person happy. St. Augustine goes on to end his fourth book like he always ends his other books with praise to God in guiding him in everything he does. St. AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth book of Confessions begins by giving praise to God. Augustine was now 28 years old and was living in Carthage teaching rhetoric. During this time the Bishop of the Manichaean religion named Faustus came to speak to Augustine. Augustine found flaws with the BishopÃ¢â¬â¢s logic and still refused to convert to the Manichaean religion. He had finally come to the realization that his mind was far more advanced than those around him. Augustine had decided to flee Carthage and go to Rome at this time, and just after he arrived in Rome he had fallen ill. He soon recovered though and spent time listening to the teachings of a school of Skeptic philosophers. Although Augustine was still a member of the Manichaean faith he was starting to question the faith more and more. Soon after this he listened to the great Catholic Bishop Ambrose who was head of the Milan Church during this time. St. Ambrose gave very impressive sermons and introduced Augustine to the possibilities of an allegorical interpretation of the Bible. Augustine started addressing some of the problems he head with the Catholic faith. Finally Augustine though unsure decided to become a catechumen.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Technology is a word that is used to describe advancements, knowledge, creations, and abilities. Every day Technology continues to grow allowing our society to advance in the way we live our lives. Advancement in technology has created people in society to become more knowledgeable while allowing distractions to their everyday life. Technology such as the Internet is a tool that society uses in their everyday life. The Internet is interactive and can provide endless information to people in society. Before the Internet, people had limitations to the knowledge they were able to obtain and it affected the opportunities society had to grow. Author Steven Pinker who wrote the article Mind over Mass Media makes a statement saying Ã¢â¬Å"If you train people to do one thing (recognize shapes, solve math puzzles, or find hidden words), they get better at doing that one thing. Ã¢â¬ Because the Internet has provided people with more knowledge, different aspects of society have been able to grow i. We will write a custom essay sample on Technology Synthesis Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page e. science. The amount of knowledge that is provided to people is endless. Pinker says Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge is increasing exponentiallyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ where people are unable to keep up with the amount of knowledge that is accessible to them, but as they are able to learn, technology will continue to grow. Just like Pinker says Ã¢â¬Å"Far from making us stupid these technologies are the only thing that will keep us smart. Ã¢â¬ As technology grows the ways of communicating continue to become more effective. We have the ability to communicate through cell phones and the internet. The advancement in technology has invented the way of texting on a cell phone or using the social media on the internet. Lynne Truss, the author of The Joy of Texting, gives a great example of what texting is by saying Ã¢â¬Å"texting is a supremely secretive medium of communication-its like passing a noteÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Using the example of passing a note is a great way of interpreting a text because no one knows what the text says and it is in the same silent way of communicating as if you were passing a note. She shares her own thought in the article by saying Ã¢â¬Å"We are in love with effective communication and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing more effective than sending a messege direct from your phone to someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬ Texting has become an effective way of communicating because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to call numerous people to be able to say something, but instead create a group text and be able to send a message to all of them in one text. Effective way of communicating through the internet would be through social media sites such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogging. The internet gives a person the capability to not only communicate with the people that may be close to him, but the ability to communicate with people all over the world. Author George Russell who wrote the article What Would Happen If You Threw a Revolution and Everyone Showed Up? believes that it is also a more productive way of communicating. Russell says Ã¢â¬Å"Instead of the time waster of Television, we are now being productive because weÃ¢â¬â¢re able to Ã¢â¬Å"create and shareÃ¢â¬ with one another via blogs and social media sites such as YouTube. Ã¢â¬ The Internet can be a way of communicating endless amounts of information on different subjects to people all over the world. Russell believes Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦because of the InternetÃ¢â¬â¢s inherent massorganizing ability, by using it we are able to contribute to society. Ã¢â¬ Using the Internet is a great way to effectively communicate awareness to societies all over the world. The ability to communicate effectively has made communication easier for people in society. With the constant advancement in technology comes the distraction of people in society. People are always curious to know what the updates are on their Facebook or what kind of new videos have been uploaded to YouTube. There may be a person who keeps his cell phone by his side at all times and when he hears a Ã¢â¬Å"dingÃ¢â¬ sound there is an automatic reaction to find out if it was a text or a notification that he has an email. Author of Mind Over Mass Media, Steven Pinker, gives examples of ways to provide self-control Ã¢â¬Å"Turn off email or Twitter when you work, put away your Blackberry at dinner time, ask your spouse to call you to bed at a designated hour. Ã¢â¬ The examples given by Pinker can be successful ways to provide self-control. There are many people who are addicted to their cell phones. Cell phones can be used for texting, emailing, or phone calls that may be business related. Author of The Joy of Texting, Lynne Truss, was able to point out when people are distracted by a message they have received. Truss said Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦there is a new facial expression I have observed which involves a fixed smile and panicky swivelled eyes, which means Ã¢â¬Å"I am still listening to you, but I can see I have a message, but I am honestly still listening to you, I will read the message later, so tell me again, what did you say, I wish I could read my effing message. Ã¢â¬ Distractions will always be around us, but it is up to us to be able to have self-control and to not allow the advancement in technology to change the way we act. Conclusion: The advancement in technology has been a reality check to people in society. As technology advances, people have the ability to become more knowledgeable and advance in different aspects of life. The tools technology provides to people are effective communication which allows the change and growth to society and the people that live in it. Technology advances so quickly that is hard to keep up with, but it is important to have self-control so that everyday life is not full of distraction. As time goes by technology will continue to grow and provide society with new tools and provide new ways that we live our lives.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
A Single Step essays A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. I have recently learned how true this statement is and started to realize that it applies to just about everything in my life. From college, to getting over the loss of a good friend, to starting new relationships. Ever since I was a little girl I talked about going to college. As I got into high school I started to receive letters and information from different colleges. But the fact that I was actually going to go didnt hit me until I had to start picking out and narrowing down the college I wanted to go to in my junior year. Now that Im entering my second half of my senior year I have to pick out which colleges I apply to and soon will attend. The rest of my life started with the small step of dreaming of going to college. Over the past few years I have lost many close and dear friends. Each time I received the bad news that someone else had passed away the pain I felt was unbearable and like my whole world came crashing down. Time went on and I have learned to accept that no one lives forever and that it was just that persons time to pass on. I have also learned to think of each persons life as a blessing and that the end is not a horrible thing but just makes us appreciate each person around us more. After losing so many people in a short period of time I became very wary of making new friends. For some reason I thought that if I got to know someone new I would lose someone else. I kept pushing people away, trying to protect myself from feeling more pain. Thankfully over the summer I had a chance to realize that I thought wrong. There were so many people around me that wanted to be my friend and I was losing out. By the time I got back to school my whole attitude had changed. People that I had pushed away were still willing to be my friend and I accepte ...
Friday, November 22, 2019
How to Write a Formal Essay Ã¢â¬â Get your Sophistication on! How to Write a Formal Essay Ã¢â¬â Get your Sophistication on! Much of the essay and paper writing that you do in school is formal. And you are writing formal essays all the time without realizing it Ã¢â¬â you just may not be getting the grades you should, because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t fully understand the nature of these types of essays, as opposed to other types. Here you will find all that you need to know about formal essay writing. First, to Define Formal Essay Writing The formal essay is, above all, objective and impersonal. It is a piece of writing that explains, that informs, that compares and contrasts, and that may also attempt to persuade. These type of essays are contrasted with such pieces as a narrative (telling a story) or a personal statement essay that a student might write for college or graduate school admissions. Think of the difference between using the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"one.Ã¢â¬ That is perhaps the simplest method of differentiating between formal and informal essays. The other difference between formal writing and informal writing is usually that formal types are based upon factual evidence and data, while informal types are based upon emotion, stories, and un-supported beliefs/views. The Formal Essay Format A formal essay must be at least five paragraphs long and consist of an introduction, at least 3 body paragraphs and a conclusion. This probably sounds familiar to you; however, remember, that a personal statement essay also has the same format. Again, the difference is being personal or impersonal and objective. The Introduction: Obviously, this is the opening paragraph of your essay. It begins with some type of highly engaging sentence Ã¢â¬â a startling statistic, a quotation from a related famous expert on the topic, or a question that piques interest. The introduction must also state the topic and the thesis. Any formal essay must have a thesis statement, which provides the point you are trying to make. The thesis is usually the final sentence of the introduction. The Body: These are the paragraphs that will provide the information, evidence, etc. to prove your thesis statement. There may be any number, but there must be at least 3, and each must begin with a topic sentence. The Conclusion: Wrap up your points to demonstrate that your thesis is valid. Writing a Formal Essay of Various Types The structure and format for a formal will always be the same, no matter what type of essay you are writing. Here are some examples of formal essay topics based upon purpose/type: Expository: Explain the life cycle of a virus once it enters the human body. Definition: Define justice as it relates to our current court system in the U.S. Analysis: Analyze the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ by Edgar Allen Poe Comparison/Contrast: Contrast the health care systems in the U.S. and Germany. Process: Explain the process by which ocean water is de-salinized Persuade: Convince an audience that prison privatization is a bad idea Contrast these topics with the following topics that are personal and informal. Describe a significant event in your life that impacted your belief system. Recall a time when you met with failure. Describe how and why you think you failed. What did you learn? Learning how to write a formal essay is not difficult Ã¢â¬â you already know the format. The key is to keep it objective Ã¢â¬â just the facts!
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Different Products and Factors which Affect their Demand and Supply - Assignment Example Similarly, any decrease in the price of a commodity will increase its quantity demanded that will result in an extension of demand i.e. movement along the same curve towards a higher level of quantity demanded. Any other factors other than price which affects the demand for a product will result into a change in its demand at every level; hence the whole demand curve will shift from its original position and will operate on a new demand curve formed on the basis and magnitude of the change. Some factors which affect the demand for a product are changes in the income level of a person, changes in the distribution of income, advertising, and marketing of the product, consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s taste, fashion or trend, credit facilities associated with the product, the price of substitute goods and complementary goods etc. Any changes are population are also considered to be a factor which influences the demand, however, it is considered to be a long-term factor, any changes in a population usua lly occur over a large period of time. The market for convenience foods is expanding rapidly even though there are various programs and efforts directed to inform the people about its adverse effects on human health. Some people believe that it contains a lesser amount of nutrients and a higher amount of fats, preservatives, taste enhancers etc. Despite the concerns associated with it, the demand for convenience food is on the rise as the quality or taste of the food and female employment has increased. More people are attracted towards these nearly ready-to-eat meals as they feel it saves time and is more convenient than usual cooking. The market for convenience foods is expected to expand further which means there will be further increases in its demand, this could be due to different factors such as a change in taste, fashion, lower price, higher quality etc. The price of good always plays an important role in determining what quantity will be demanded by the consumers. The price of convenience foods is expected to decrease as newer and efficient factors and methods of production are been used.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using an Internal Change Agent - Research Paper Example Nevertheless, an organization can plan for change by preparing for it; however, change must be managed for it to succeed. Barriers to change are common and may lead to failure; they may include lack of enough resources, resistance, and lack of commitment, among others. As a result, change agents are necessary; they may be internal or external agents. However, they should be capable of motivating others and guarantee progress (Recklies, 2011). Change agents take up the duty of introducing and managing change. Internal change agents can vary form managers to employees. An internal change agent is advantageous compared to an external change agent; for instance, they are familiar with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, political system and history (Nelson & Quick, 2010, p.633). In addition, the internal change agents are likely to ensure that they introduce and manage change effectively because they will be affected by the results of the change, since they are part of the organization. C hange agents should be capable of fostering communication, commitment, and support in the change process. This paper will discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of internal change management. Advantages of internal change agents An organization decides to hire change agents for several reasons; the special skills and knowledge they possess, capability of management decisions, and the capability of leading an organization towards success through change management. Incase an organization decides to hire an internal change agent, below are some of the advantages. The change management process assists the organization in understanding the type of change and the reason for change, and as a result, reducing the fear of the unknown. Internal change agents are advantageous, since they can easily communicate with employees; as a result, trust is gained fast because they are part of the organization. Internal change agents mainly comprise of managers of an organization or its employees ; many organizations choose to use change agents with an aim of achieving a competitive advantage (Gilley, 2001, p.9). In addition, internal change agents are efficient, especially when emerging problems require the understanding of culture, procedures, structure, practices, and policies of an organization. An internal change agent is easily acceptable in the organization, as he in a position of understanding the organization better, hence being accountable for his decision, which is advantageous in reducing security risks. It is also possible for an internal change agent to be more time and cost efficient, since he is already familiar with the organization system. The knowledge of organizational politics, resources, and culture is also an added advantage as the change agent is committed to long-term success (Gilley, 2001, p.10). Moreover, an internal change agent can also work as an external agent especially when working in different departments. In addition, there is guaranteed co nfidentiality and security, since the change agent is part of the organization. This change agent may easily trust and respect fellow employees, as they are a team. Internal agents are likely to benefit from the easy accessibility of information, which is not the case with external agents. This may be an added advantage
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Intel in China Essay Mr. Tang and Mr. Li are the participants of an interesting incident in the BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s division of Intel China that can be analyzed with the help of some important Chinese concepts like face, hierarchy and preservation of social harmony. Mr. Tang is the new manager of the marketing programs of Intel China in Beijing, and has a background of Western education and years of working experience in the United States. Mr. Li is a young but skilful account manager, enthusiastic and assertive, who has been carrying on the project of creating a manual of tips for software vendors for two months and plans to carry it on till its completion. After taking over BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s Intel division Mr. Tang decides to study the work of each employee and to make changes where necessary. One of his adjustments involves Mr. LiÃ¢â¬â¢s project. Since Mr. Tang considers this task extremely time-consuming and unsuited for an inexperienced employee, he decides to discontinue his project and assign him to a more appropriated one. He asks Qing Chen (Mr. LiÃ¢â¬â¢s supervisor) to inform him of his resolution, but Mr. Li opposes firmly to this change, asserting that his superior is not being respectful. Analyzing the situation we can see that there are several Chinese communication patterns which play an important role and influence these people behaviour. Mr. Tang uses an intermediary (Miss Chen) to communicate the problem to his employee, and this is a common strategy in China. He avoids direct confrontation with Mr. Li, and this is an act that aims to safe face for both of them. However with his response, Mr. Li is causing Mr. Tang to lose face, he is endangering his authority and his ability to control and guide his employees. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that Mr. Tang is acting in the best interest of his company, and his power shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be questioned. In fact, in Chinese business context is very unusual to see an employee reacting like Mr. Li, questioning a bossÃ¢â¬â¢ decision and showing dissent. But, even so, Mr. Tang shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fire him, given Mr. LiÃ¢â¬â¢s important role in the company and the number of guanxi he has established with other firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ managers. Regarding Miss Chen, her lack of authority and of immediate response to Mr. LiÃ¢â¬â¢s critics is probably caused by her inexperience in managerial positions. In their next meeting Mr. Tang should try to make him understand the reason of his decision, without forgetting to start by praising his work and his efforts. Chinese people are very concerned about reputation and the need to be respected by others, so to avoid both Mr. Tang and Mr. Li to feel embarrassed and lose face, the best solution is for Mr. Li to accept Mr. TangÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. This act, that implies giving face, will be very appreciated by Mr. Tang, who in the future will not forget to reward his employee. In China preserving the social harmony plays an important role when doing business, and Mr. Li should try to shape his working attitude according to this concept, that is also part of the Intel philosophy. In conclusion, I find myself completely in accordance with Mr. Tang managerial style, he acted like a pure Chinese, not as an expatriate. Actually, given Mr. LiÃ¢â¬â¢s excessive response, it looks like he is the one who has been influenced by Western ideas.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The WWW and Problem Based Learning in Introductory Philosophy ABSTRACT: This essay explains how problem-based learning and the World Wide Web (WWW) may be used in collaboration to shift student learning experiences in dramatic ways and to encounter the tasks and concerns of philosophy. We will provide a guided tour of the web site and the problems used in the course, and will describe how these pedagogical strategies may be used to complement traditional classroom venues without making a commitment to offering a course completely on-line for distance learning scenarios. Problem-based learning will also be described and its importance to philosophical instruction will be emphasized. We argue that teaching philosophy by means of problems is more philosophically sound than taking a discrete topical or textual approach. Challenges to this pedagogy are uncovered and discussed. This paper will focus on two significant instructional methods, problem based learning and the use of the web as a teaching tool. It will provide details of the ways in which these two methods have been merged in an Introductory Philosophy class. We will be demonstrating the navigation of our Introduction to Philosophy course web site. I. Problem Based Learning Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a method of teaching and learning that stresses problem solving activities as a means to encountering and applying knowledge. (Barrows, 1984) It develops out of a strong concern that traditional education stresses the acquisition of factual knowledge without long term retention of that information, the ability to apply the material, the skill to think critically, or the understanding of the context in which knowledge develops and relates. (Norman, 1988, Bridges, 1992, Walton and Matthews, 1989).PBL uses a set of problems - simulations, ethical dilemmas, case studies, medical diagnoses or decisions, legal disputes, public policy issues - as the framework for student learning. The closer the problem is to a real life, relevant problem, the better it functions as a learning motivator. (Bridges, 1992). In traditional lecture and discussion format classes, the instructor introduces the material that he/she deems appropriate and then tests the students knowl edge of the material. In PBL, the student is initially confronted with a problem that requires a solution. The problem drives the student assignments and learning tasks. It is the avenue through which students become acquainted with the material. Barbara Duch says "In a traditional science class, learning tends to proceed from the abstract to the concrete, with concepts being introduced first, followed by an application problem.
Monday, November 11, 2019
This report evaluates whether Exel should move into supply chain planning with Haus Mart at this time or pursue some other strategy for advancing ExelÃ¢â¬â¢s current role. Economic and strategic arguments will be provided to convince Exel leadership of the best course of action. The following bullet points will identify the key issues in the case followed by an analysis of those issues. Haus Mart is reliant on over 650 supply chains worldwide to control the freight management responsibilities for all of its brand name products, representing 70% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue, which creates substantial risk in terms of receiving orders on time and of the right quantity and quality. Exel does not control the sixth DC, so though Exel conducts exceptional freight management of all private label products (30% of company revenue), the logistics company has no control over the process for those products delivered to the sixth DC. Exel has a proven track record of keeping and extending the scope with its customers. Exel has extensive experience and well-established global networks for freight management (675 locations in 112 countries) and contract logistics (1,600 facilities in 120 countries) and is well qualified to assume a supply chain planning role with Haus Mart. However, the purpose of moving beyond simple coordination to supply chain planning under the new Lead Logistics Partner (LLP) model is to allow Exel to help its customers match supply with demand, identify drivers of risk, and reduce the risk to both companies. The issues presented above are fair warning that a sudden transition into a business-wide supply chain planning role would not be a wise next step for Exel at this time. However, Exel can assume a limited supply chain planning role which will be discussed in the action plan laterÃ on. The issue of 650 global suppliers of brand name products is the most concerning issue in evaluating the opportunity at hand. It would be very difficult for Exel to forge strategic planning decisions and guarantee results while having no control of the freight management of 70% of Haus MartÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue. Once concern is that there are too many brand name product suppliers. With an overabundance of suppliers come high costs, high risks, shallow relationships, low leverage, a lack of high volume discounts, poor performance and a slew of other concerns that make Haus Mart inefficient and unable to guarantee its customers a sure thing. Haus Mart needs excellently performing suppliers, not too many suppliers. The other obvious concern is that these suppliers control the freight management. For supply chain planning to be successful for Exel, freight management and contract logistics must work together to create an efficient supply chain from the source point to the point of sale. Exel is doing an excellent job running five of the six DCs for Haus Mart and delivering those products to the 350 German stores as well as executing brilliant in-store logistics. However, any disruption in the freight management of these brand name products before they reach the DCs will pull the rug out from under ExelÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain planning and may involve the company in a decision which loses Haus Mart money. The other main issue is that Exel has no control over the sixth DC. Therefore, Exel is limited on the efficiencies and cost savings it could produce for Haus Mart. Freight management and transportation in Germany for all private label products are run by Exel. So for the five DCs Exel runs, the logistics company can depend on excellent freight management for these private label products. This is the one business situation between Haus Mart and Exel where a supply chain planning role would be effective at this time. The reason being, this is the only situation where Exel has full control of the supply chain from freight management in Turkey, through the five distribution centers to the stores in Germany. In this case, all risk incurred would depend on the performance of Exel alone. The 3PL running the sixth DC is consistently underperforming compared to Exel. As a result,Ã despite excellent freight management, Exel has no control over the contract logistics for private label products flowing through this DC and certainly no control over the brand name products. Exel has no way of coordinating with this DC to provide best in class delivery and in-store logistics to the German stores this DC delivers to. Exel can conduct reactive in-store logistics at these locations, but there is no way to benefit from the coordination and efficiencies produced by the DC and store locations working together to best serve the consumer. Exel and Haus Mart should consider the following action plan to address these issues and put Exel in an ideal position to assume a business-wide supply chain planning role. First, Exel should assume supply chain planning for private label products flowing through the five DCs it controls. As mentioned before, Exel manages the supply chain from start to finish and this case and depends on its own expertise to mitigate risk. Second, Haus Mart needs to conduct a supplier performance analysis and look for ways to trim the fat off of its 650 brand name product suppliers for the many reasons mentioned earlier. A CAGE analysis should also be conducted to determine the cultural, administrative, geographic and economic advantages/disadvantages of all suppliers both from a regional perspective and by country. Haus Mart can then move to consolidate its suppliers. One critical consideration must remain top of mind. The company must not accidentally remove key value-adding partners or strategic alliances, which may potentially destroy key relationships and jeopardize the overall supply chain. Third, Haus Mart should start transitioning Exel into taking over the freight management role for all brand name products. Start with a few key suppliers. As the supplier consolidation finishes, Exel will continue assuming freight management responsibilities one supplier at a time until it controls the whole show. Fourth, Haus Mart should give Exel control of the sixth DC when the other 3PLÃ¢â¬â¢s contract expires. This 4-step action plan will create an ideal environment in which Exel can effectively deliver best-in-class supply chain management solutions. Both freight management and contract logistics would operate via ExelÃ¢â¬â¢s excellent IT management systems allowing Exel to achieve its informational technologyÃ objective of maintaining accurate data. With a consolidated list of suppliers for brand name products and Exel in control of freight management for private label and brand name products, Haus Mart planners could then trust execution and be trained against resorting to costly Ã¢â¬Å"just in caseÃ¢â¬ behaviors such as ordering extra inventory. With Exel managing the supply chain from start to finish, freight management to contract logistics, Haus Mart will see significant savings both immediate and long-term. Then, having developed some experience in supply chain planning per step one, Exel would be in a great position to assume a business-wide supply chain planning role at Ha us Mart.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The interest of the United States in Cuba goes as far back as the pre-Civil War era when it wanted to annex Cuba as a slave state for its cotton. However, it was only in 1898 that Cuba was won from Spain following the Spanish-American war. While this lasted only until 1902, the U. S. was able to negotiate a long-term lease on the island at the Guantanamo Bay and turned it into a naval base. From that time until Castro took the helm, the second most powerful official in Cuba after the President was the U. S. Ambassador (Lafeber, 19 April 1986, p. 537).In 1947, open hostilities with communism have begun. President Truman recommended to the U. S. Congress to stop the Russian aggression in Europe. This was contained in the Truman Doctrine (Ismael, 1965, P. 3212). This was followed by a U. S. -led food airlift to the western sector which the Russians were starving out with its Berlin blockade. Then, there was the assistance provided to the communists, by the way, eventually won and the ac tive participation in the Korean War of 1950. While such actions were unpopular,, there was an apparent consensus that the U.S. should indeed show that it is not beyond having to use force to stop the expansionist plans of the communists. In 1953, Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected President. The anti-communist sentiment was particularly rife at that time with Senator McCarthy charging practically everyone of being a communist, and succeeded in spreading fear and conflict throughout the country. In Asia, China was showing signs of aggression against Taiwan which then led to the US pledge of aid to any Southeast Asian Treaty Organization member who has to fight off communist advances.In Latin America, communist influence was equally spreading. In 1959, on January 1st, Fidel Castro and his guerillas managed to overthrow Fulgencio Batista and the former Prime Minister and newly-elected President Dr. Andres Rivero Aguero (Telzrow, 2006). The United States was one of the first countries to acknowledge CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s ascendancy through an official note declaring Ã¢â¬Å"the sincere goodwill of the government of the United States towards the new governmentÃ¢â¬ (Welch, 1982, p. 29). Shortly thereafter, Philip Bonsal was appointed as the new US Ambassador to Havana.Bonsal was the former ambassador to Bolivia where the Spanish-speaking career diplomat was able to establish a good relationship with the leftist administration. Four months later, in April 1959, Fidel Castro visited the United States where then Vice President Richard Nixon got to meet him. Nixon unilaterally proclaimed him to be a communist. CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent reforms were radical enough to align Cuba with communist party and collide with the Eisenhower Administration. There was the suspension of free elections, socialization of private business and the confiscation of U. S. property.This was followed by the nationalization of businesses which produced staple products such as milk and milk and by-p roducts, sugar, beer, toiletries, textiles and even banks (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, p. 161). Given these internal developments in Cuba, the U. S. Department of State had started to draw up an agreement with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that would effect the downfall of Castro by using the Cuban faction opposed to him to make it look like an internal act. The situation was more alarming and an insult inasmuch as communism was practically taking root next door.In December 1959, an outline of operations both in covert and propaganda form for the overthrow of Castro was drawn up by the CIA head of Western Hemisphere, J. C. King. A more comprehensive plan was drawn up by Jacob Esterline, former chief of the Guatemala station. On March 17, President Eisenhower approved a paper penned by the CIA entitled Ã¢â¬Å"A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro RegimeÃ¢â¬ and the plan to bring down Castro was underway. People were put in place. David Atlee Phillips was made propagan da chief.He was to run Radio Swan, the station that would be broadcasting propaganda against the Castro government. E. Howard Hunt was made chief of political action with the main task of organizing and preparing the members of the government that will replace CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s once it is overthrown. (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, p. 159). By July 1960, Russia and the U. S. were exchanging barbs. The Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khruschev had declared its support for Castro to which Eisenhower adamantly replied that communism will not be allowed by the U. S.to grow in the Western Hemisphere (Sierra, 2007, par. 7). On October 28, the United States recalled Ambassador Bonsal permanently back to Washington and followed later by officially breaking off all diplomatic relations with Cuba. Cuba soon began to receive arms from the Soviet Union (Telzrow, 21 August 2006, 37+). The incumbent administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s interest was not only directed on Cuba in 1960. Internally, there was a more immediat e concern on hand. It was campaign period for the Presidential elections. Vice President Richard Nixon was running against the popular Senator John F.Kennedy. He realized the sensitivity of the issue about Castro and communist Cuba and rode to the hilt the American votersÃ¢â¬â¢ anti-Castro sentiment and their restlessness towards its resolution. Earlier in the campaign, he was already briefed by CIA Director Allan Dulles on intelligence matters as required by law and this briefing included the confidential information about the training of exiles from Cuba who will be mobilized for an assault on the island. Then, on the eve of a candidate's debate, Kennedy attacked Eisenhower's Cuba policy. He openly called for U. S.support for the exiled anti-Castro forces and further exclaimed that thus far, these exiles had not received any support from the government. Kennedy knew that Nixon will not be able to counter this attack without compromising the secrecy of the plan. Nixon could only criticize Kennedy for the irresponsibility of his statements (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, pp. 160-162). Meanwhile, the plan was steadily materializing. In May 1960, Radio Swan went on the air. Using a powerful transmitter, it broadcasted programs that were actually taped in Miami. The Cuban exiled forces were placed in Guatemala.The incumbent President and dictator of Guatemala, Gen. Miguel Ydigoras owed his position to the CIA for enforcing a covert operation in 1954 against then Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz. He thus allowed an airport to be built in his country. NicaraguaÃ¢â¬â¢s Anastacio Somoza also provided a training base in his country (LaFeber, 16 April 1966, 537+). The Cuban exiled forces were collectively called Brigade 2506. They were originally being trained off the coast of Florida. Eventually, the size of the brigade grew to about 1,500 soldiers. The Castro government was not turning a blind eye against all these things that were going on.Eventually, Castro had his chance and on September 26, 1960, he addressed the UN General Assembly where he charged the U. S. for setting up a broadcasting station in Swan Island which the U. S. lamely refuted by stating that it was a privately-owned station by a commercial broadcasting company. A month later, Cuba again went on the offensive again in the UN General Assembly this time with the Cuban Foreign Minister Raul Roa providing well-informed details on how the recruitment and training of these exiled forces were allegedly being conducted.In his address, however, he did not call them exiles but as mercenaries and counter-revolutionaries. He stated that they were recruited, paid and sustained by the CIA by providing for them and their families (Sierra, 2007, par. 19). Later, in 2000, during a historic meeting of the personalities involved in the Bay of Pigs invasion, these exiles were once again referred to as mercenaries at which point Fidel Castro corrected him, Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re brigadistasÃ¢â¬ (Dinges, 23 April 2001, 6). It was CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to turn the tide of foreign opinion against the Americans and later we will see how this tactic by Castro proved to be effective.At the interim, a budget of USD13 million was approved by President Eisenhower. He also authorized the use of the Defense DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel and equipment but pointedly instructed that no American citizen must be used in combat. However, the CIAÃ¢â¬â¢s initial attempt at dropping weapons and supplies in Cuba failed miserably. The drop zone was missed and the ground agent was caught and shot (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, 161). On January 1961, President John F. Kennedy took office. After campaigning heavily against lack of action on Cuba, he essentially trapped himself. In LaFeberÃ¢â¬â¢s (1986), KennedyÃ¢â¬Å"despised Castro and saw himself going head-to-head with Nikita Kruschev over which superpower would control the Third World. He was also passionately committed to a romantic view o f counter-revolutionary operations and feared being labeled as less of an anti-Communist than Eisenhower, whose policies he had blasted only months earlier. So the attack went ahead on the night of April 17Ã¢â¬ (537+). Before the actual invasion happened, the plan changed several times due to several factors. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of State was afraid of the consequential impact on the US relations with Latin America (Lafeber, 1986, 537+).White House adviser Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. remarked that while Kennedy was adamant about not using US soldiers directly, but the CIA acted on the conviction that he will change his mind (Dinges, 2001, 6). Everyone was of the assumption that the Cuban people would all rise spontaneously to get rid of Castro (Lafeber, 1986, 537+). Meanwhile, despite all the efforts to avoid having the US stamp on the exiled forces by having the training camps and airfield in Nicaragua and Guatemala, it was soon evident that the operation did not remain a sec ret for very long.It was even already being discussed within cliques in the UN. On Jan. 11th 1961, the Joint Chief of Staff were consulted for the first time on. From the combined minds of the Department of Defense, the CIA and the JCS, Operation Bumpy Road was born. On Jan. 28th, newly-elected President John F. Kennedy was briefed. The concept of the plan as outlined in the memorandum prepared by two senior CIA officials in charge of the brigade, Jacob Esterline and Jack Hawkins. A small area was to be seized and defended at the initial stage.There will be no more offensive tactics to be done until the expected uprising of the majority of the Cuban people begins or an overt operation by the US forces is (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, p. 164). The landing was already plotted to be in Trinidad, which was in the southern coast of Cuba. This is located near Escambray Mountains. His would be an ideal site for Operation Bumpy Road because of the alternatives that it can offer. The expeditiona ry forces already have the goodwill of the population of Trinidad as the majority is anti-Castro.In case the defense of the landing is compromised, they could turn to Plan B and flee into the mountains. There, a guerilla warfare can be fought. Thus, with this plan in mind, Brigade 2506 trained throughout 1960 under this plan. Richard Bissell, CIA Director of Plans, assessed the plans. He believed that there is a possibility of success such that they might survive and gain support for as long as they hold their ground. If the support from the Cuban people comes, then the US can make overt action plans on the pretense of backing the revolutionaries (Bight & Kornbluh, 1999, p.164). Originally scheduled for Mach 5, 1961, the operation was put on hold until April after examination of all possible alternatives. This was due to the intervention of the State Department for diplomatic and political reasons. The U. S. still believes that it can get away with Ã¢â¬Å"plausible deniabilityÃ¢â¬ and Operation Bumpy Road can no way disguise U. S. complicity. Hence, despite argument from Bissel that postponement and possible plan revision will create undue tension and resentment among the brigade members, the March date did not materialize.In fact a revolt by the exiles who were training in Guatemala did occur in late January 1961 with 500 resigning (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, p. 164). Bissell concluded that this plan may be the only one where a covert operation is still possible in bringing down Fidel Castro. National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy was not in accord and instead recommended a trade embargo instead and allow internal rif to reach a boling point before launching the brigade. So, it was a Bumpy Road indeed as the rinidad Plan was rejected.President Kennedy set down his conditions in preparing a new plan. First, it must be a silent landing and it is to be done at night. The CIA then presented three alternatives. There was a revision of the Trinidad Plan, there w as to be a new target for landing which would be the northeast coast and the third alternative would be at the Bay of Pigs codenamed Ã¢â¬Å"Operation ZapataÃ¢â¬ . The President chose the Zapata Plan liked but with certain changes particularly that it must have the appearance of being more of a guerilla-type of operation.Thus, it was modified to a night landing (instead of a dawn landing) with air drops at first light. Kennedy questions the necessity of the air strikes. A compromise was agreed to limit the air strikes to two days before d-day simultaneous with a diversionary landing of 160 men in Eastern Cuba. These strikes will give the impression that the air strikes are those by Cuban pilots defecting from the Cuban air force and thus further giving lie that its an internal uprising. Bissell also reassures Kennedy that the Cubans on the island will join in an uprising.The chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations, Senator William Fullbright did not believe that such tactics will fool anyone. However, a vote from the advisers favored moving ahead (Blight & Kornbluh 1999, 165). Seven days before d-day, Esterline and Hawkins sent notice that they want to quit, that Ã¢â¬Å"the project was out of controlÃ¢â¬ but Bissell prevailed upon them to stay. Three days before the invasion, Kennedy made a statement in a press conference that the US Armed Forces One day before the invasion, the number of plane were reduced from 16 to six planes as ordered by Kennedy to keep it minimal.On April 16, the landing plan was approved by Kennedy. However, fearing international condemnation, Kennedy cancels the dawn air strikes until the beachhead airfield is in the hands of the landing force and completely operational and capable of supporting the raids. Bissell argued unsuccessfully that the landings will be seriously endangered without it. The air strikes were cancelled. Aboard the Blagar, CIA agent Grayston Lynch receives intelligence report that the Cuba air force will strik e, it moves close to shore and delivers gunfire support to the landing troops.The Brigade troops landed at 1Ã¢â¬â¢o clock in the morning. Later that morning, the Houston comes under air attack and is hit. Blight and Kornbluh (1999) gives a detailed account: Ã¢â¬Å"It goes aground with about 180 men on the west side of the Bay of Pigs Ã¢â¬â about five miles from the landing beach. At 9:30 AM, the freighter Rio Escondido is sunk by a direct rocket hit from a Sea Furya Ã¢â¬Å"with ten day's reserves of ammunition on board, as well as food, hospital equipment, and gasoline.All crew members are rescued and transferred to the Blagar. Fighting rages throughout the day, with the brigade freighters withdrawing 50 miles out to sea. That evening, President Kennedy discusses the deteriorating situation with his advisersÃ¢â¬ (p. 168). On April 18, the Brigade Commander refused a call for evacuation. While at the UN on the same day, Ambassador Adlai Stevenson continued to deny that the Un ited States had intervened militarily in Cuba.Bissell, in direct violation of Kennedy's instructions, authorized American pilots to fly combat missions when a number of the Cuban pilots at Pueto Cabezos refused to fly. On April 19, two planes flown by U. S. pilots were shot down and the pilots killed. The invasion force were captured. About 130 were killed and 1,189 were taken prisoners. Cuba's casualties were about 157. Mass trials were held and the prisoners were each given a sentence of 30 years. Negotiations got underway and after 20 months, most were released in exchange for money, food and medical supplies (Sierra, 2007).In the aftermath, Lymann Kirkpatrick, the CIA Inspector General, issued a report that pointed to Bissell and his aide Tracy Barnes as not having firm plans for the invasion and failed to advise Kennedy that a covert action is not at all possible. Bissell rebutted by issuing a memorandum of his own and putting the blame on Kennedy's withdrawal of the air strike s. On June 13, 1961, General Taylor, head of the Taylor Committee composed on Gen. Maxwell taylor, Atty. General Robert Kennedy, Adm. Arleigh Burke and Dir. Gen.Of CIA Allen Dulles to investigate why the operation failed submits their report to President Kennedy that the operation was ill-considered and it was never ever possible that Zapatacan be run as a covert operation. If a reorientation of the operation had not been possible, the project should have been abandoned. (Blight & Kornbluh, 1999, p. 169). Apart from the reports of Kirkpatrick of the CIA and the Taylor Committee, and after more documents relating to the Bay of Pigs invasion surfaced and were declassified, the following can be concluded:Ã¢â¬â the CIA made decisions on mere assumptions that the people would spontaneously assist in overthrowing Castro (Lafeber, 1986). Ã¢â¬â they failed to see that the exiles and the supporters were the loud minority while the majority were straddling the fence in a wait-and-see at titude inasmuch as Castro's government was still at its inception and already seemed to have been serious about its reforms in distributing the wealth concentrated on the few during the previous regime which was openly supported by the U.S. Ã¢â¬â the United States could have lost sympathy from the locals since from 1898, they have exerted great influence over Cuba's internal affairs seemingly to the point of meddling in order to favor American businesses and the invasion was undeniably a US-backed operation the US did not trust its own invading force, not even telling the Cuban exiles the actual day of the invasion. One agent admitted that, Ã¢â¬Å"I don't trust any goddamn Cuban.Ã¢â¬ (Lafeber, 1986) Ã¢â¬â aside from being trapped by his own campaign statements, the ongoing cold war forced Kennedy to take immediate if indecisive action in battling Cuba's Castro and ultimately the USSR's Nikita Khrushchev for the Western hemisphere Ã¢â¬â there were tactical errors such as mistaking for seaweed the Bay of Pigs coral reef which caused the craft to run aground and made the easy marks. Ã¢â¬â the US underestimated the Castro's security and defenses.In a historic meeting in 2001 between the antagonists and the protagonists in the invasion which was held in Cuba, it was divulged that Ã¢â¬Å"a vast security network had been established and about 20,000 suspected dissidents were rounded upÃ¢â¬ which effectively squelched US expectations of a mass rebellion. Moreover, the Cuban air forces' better planes were camouflaged and the ones that were destroyed by the pre-d-day strike were decoys. (Dinges, 2001, p. 6).Ã¢â¬â the CIA strategy is rooted on another assumption that no president, Kennedy included despite his statements against overt operations, will allow the United States to Ã¢â¬Å"go down in ignominous defeatÃ¢â¬ and will send in the Marines (as related by White House adviser Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. In Dinges, 2001). Ã¢â¬â there were no CIA broadcasts to announce the invasion (Telzrow, 2006). Ã¢â¬â from Jack Hawkins himself, Kennedy made the fatal error of placing Ã¢â¬Å"plausible deniability ahead of military viability (Hawkins 1996, p. 36+).It would seem highly improbable that the world's greatest superpower would be defeated by a revolutionary government barely over a year in power. However, that is exactly what Cuba did under Fidel Castro's leadership. On April 19, 1961 Cuba was able to repulse an invasion led by 1,400 commandos of Brigade 2506 who arrived at Playa Giron (Giron Beach) from Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs). Brigade 2506 was US-backed all the way. The planning and training was done by the CIA. They were armed and supplied by the US.It was not a failure of the men of the invasion force who fought valiantly and refused to be evacuated. Given the circumstances surrounding the invasion, it was a Ã¢â¬Å"perfect failureÃ¢â¬ as it has now been dubbed for the spectacular defeat of the US. Overall, this is mainly due to the arrogance displayed by America and has now been immortalized in the Bay of Pigs. Bibliography Blight, J. G. & Kornbluh, P. (Eds. ) (1999). Politics of illusion: The Bay of Pigs invasion re-examined. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Dinges, J. (2001, April 23). Back to the Bay of Pigs. The Nation, 272, 6. Hawkins, J. (1996, December 31). The Bay of Pigs operation was doomed by presidential indecisiveness and lack of commitment. National Review, 48, 36+. Ismael, F. L. (1965). The United States as a world leader. The Book of Knowledge, vol. 9, pp. 3206-3224. New York: Grolier Incorporated. LaFeber, W. (1986, April 19). Lest we forget the Bay of Pigs; the unlearned lessons. The Nation, 242, 537-539. Sierra, J. A. (2007).History of Cuba. Retrieved August 15, 2007, from http://www. historyofcuba. com/cuba/htm. Telzrow, M. E. (2006, August 21). Bay of Pigs betrayal: The betrayal of the Cuba people by the CIA, State Department and staff members of the New York Times ranks as one of the America's darkest foreign-policy moments. The New American, 22, 37-39. Welch. R. E. (1985). Response to revolution: The United States and the Cuban revolution, 1959-1961. Chappel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Ap World Dbq Christian and Islam Attitude Towards Merchants Essay Example Ap World Dbq Christian and Islam Attitude Towards Merchants Paper Ap World Dbq Christian and Islam Attitude Towards Merchants Paper Using the Documents, compare and contrast the differences of Christian and Islamic attitudes towards merchants until about 1500. From a review of the 7 documents presented, it is clear that Christianity and Islam condemned inequitable trade, which led to many Christians and Muslims to look down upon merchants; however, honest business, especially as a merchant, is honored highly. In fact, the Quran compares fair merchants to martyrs which were some of the holiest people of all [D2]. However, many Christian and Muslim believers found most merchants to be dishonest and greedy. A Christian scholar describes a merchants job and then concludes that when a person sells something for more than it is worth, it is unjust and unlawful [D4]. An influential Muslim scholar ventured to say that flattery, and evasiveness, litigation and disputation were all characteristic of a merchants profession [D5]. Even common people, like a Christian mother scolds her own son, a merchant, for being greedy [D6]. Muslim law, as time went one, continued to allowed merchants to trade, but some instances of trade were rebuked by whole towns [D7]. Many encouraged generosity and viewed a merchant turning from his profession as a good thing as seen in Godrics life, who was a merchant and then devoted his life to charity and solitude [D3]. Furthermore, the Bible warns all that it is extremely hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven [D1]. Also, to fully understand how Christianity and Islam viewed merchants. From Christians viewed merchants as often easily corrupted by riches, whereas Islam encouraged fair trade; however by 1500, Christians and Muslims both viewed merchants as immoral, unjust people. The Bible never specifically addressed merchants, whereas the Quran did. The holy book of the Muslims specifically named merchants as good people, but only if they were honest. Unequal transactions, however, were condemned by both Islam and Christianity. Both faiths glorified fair dealings between people, though. Thomas Aquinas clearly states to sell a thing for more than its worth, or to buy it for less than its worth, is unjust. [D4] This clearly shows why Christianity is opposed to merchants business in 1273. Ibn Khaldun, in the 14th century, also explains why he and other Muslims view erchants are not worthy of respect. Aquinas and Khaldun clarify why their faiths look down upon merchants. Also, a merchants mother gave the perspective of a common Christians view of merchants. Her obvious chastisement and command to crave not for all; you already have enough to suffice you! [D6]. Common people also thought merchants craved for money, as seen in this mothers letter. Islam and Chr istianity always to commended honest business and condemned greedy, inequitable trade; however, Islam did have a high opinion of merchants but came to agree with Christians that merchants were not respectable. Between 70 CE and 1500 CE, Christians and Muslims changed in their opinion of merchants, but stayed the same in their view of equitable transactions between people. Matthew, in the New Testament, records Jesus commenting on how hard it is for rich people to have their hearts in the right place, but he doesnt condemn the people for having money [D1]. Christians didnt specifically revile merchants specifically at this point in 70 CE. The honest, truthful Muslim merchant was praised for his reputable work, even being compared to martyrs in the Quran [D2]. As time went on, educated Christian and Muslim scholars began to voice why they both believed merchants to be immoral people [D4 and D5]. Merchants jobs were described as needing flattery, and evasiveness, litigation and disputation, and in the eyes of Muslims, this was sinful and disgraceful [D5]. In Christianity and Islam, in later years both hold merchants in low regard, but earlier on had varying opinions of money and merchants. The attitudes towards merchants varied between different sources; the holy books had a different written record of its outlook on merchants than other people recorded. The Bible warns people of the dangers of riches because Jesus claimed that it would be easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter heaven [D1]. This Holy Scripture is considered to be absolute truth to Christians, so this influenced the Christian mentality toward wealthy people. On the other hand, the Quran gives a blessing to a truthful Muslim merchant [D2]. However, religious scholars judged merchants more harshly. A Muslim scholar scolded merchants because their trade inevitably affect[ed] [their] soul [D5]. Aquinas viewed trade as unjust and unlawful. Commoners such as a merchants mother scolded her son because he was greedy although he had aqquir[ed] great riches in this world [D6]. The Holy Scriptures didnt condemn merchants directly, whereas the writings of other people of faith did. While Reginalds personal account of his friends life is helpful in understanding a Chrisitians view on the life of a merchant, it is, however, bias because R eginald was a monk, and monks were raised with a very dismal view of anything that didnt pertain to God [D3]. In the 2nd Century, monks were distinguished Christians who devoted their entire life to their faith. They were a part of asceticism, which was a mentality that the world was completely evil and material objects were only a hindrance to their faith. Ascetics denied themselves of almost every pleasure that wasnt from the worship or will of God. Since monks were raised with the sole mindset that money and worldly goals and aspirations were evil, it makes sense that Reginald would consider a merchants life full of great labors and only bearing of worthless worldly gain [D3]. He stated that Godric was yearning with his whole heart for greed and money, and not for God. However, as soon as Godric gave up his profession for a life similar to a monks, Reginald characterized Godrics life as devoted to Gods honor and service [D3]. Naturally, Reginalds account of St. Godric would be bias because of his strict, ascetic mindset towards money and worldly possessions. Although a personal letter correspondence between a merchant provides insight to the personal lives of merchants, it is bias because the merchant doesnt want to spend much money on religious paintings, but his mother wants him to be a religious man [D6]. The Italian merchant is objective about the cost and appearance of the paintings he will buy because he doesnt want to waste his hard earned money. Naturally, this is a motive for him besides his dedication to his faith. His mother on the other hand wants him to buy something beautiful in the name of the Lord and chastises him for toil[ing] so much only or the good of strangers [D6]. She wants him to buy the paintings so that she feels he is devoted to the God she believes will judge him one day. She is frustrated and demands he crave not for all because he already [has] enough to suffice him! [D6]. This letter is bias because the merchant doesnt wish to waste money and the mother wants him to buy religious paintings. While the given documents are sufficient, 2 more additional documents can help us further our understanding of Islams and Christianitys attitudes towards merchants. In the New Testament, 1 Timothy chapter 6, it says that the love of money is the root of all evil. This further explains that the Bible doesnt condemn merchants, but the unhealthy obsession of money which many merchants possess. This passage heavily affected peoples opinion of merchants because a merchant spend nearly all of his time buying and selling goods for the sole purpose of acquiring wealth. Also, to understand another cultures perspective on merchants, a Confucian writing from the Ming Dynasty would be helpful. This document describes the social hierarchy at the time. In the 14th century, merchants were considered beneath many social classes. The society also looked down upon merchants, even though the Chinese were mostly Confucian and didnt believe in a deity. This widespread mentality towards merchants could also affected Christians and Muslims opinions on the profession. The excerpt from the New Testament and the Confucian document furthermore support that many cultures looked down upon merchants. From a review of all the documents, it is clear from religious texts and written accounts of believers opinions on merchants that Muslims and Christians praised fair trade, but condemned most merchants because many merchants were not honest.
Monday, November 4, 2019
An Overview of Delta Dental Insurance Essay This paper provides an overview of Delta Dental Ã¢â¬â one of the most successful health care companies in the United States. As good oral health becomes more essential of AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ healthy lifestyle, Delta Dental insurance plans help more than 59.5 million people to be covered on their plans. By describing the outline of Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s history and current structure, this article focuses on how Delta Dental insurance has grown and improved access and overall health status. Also, this paper explores strengths and weaknesses (especially with healthcare delivery point of view) as well as makes comparison with other dental insurances companies to reveal that why Delta Dental is better and more successful than others. Finally, the future plans of Delta Dental about how to improve oral care delivery of services to clients and enrollees, as well as how it fared compare to its peer insurance companies are initialed at the end of the paper. Keywords: dental benefits programs, strengths and weaknesses, multiple types, expanding, effective benefits Many people in the world may have best access to oral health care, yet millions are unable to get basic dental care. Poor oral hygiene has significant impact on overall personal health. Researches show that poor oral hygiene increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease and poor birth outcome. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why nobody can deny the importance of oral health care. According to many statistics insurance companies that play a pivotal role in improving oral health care of the communities, we will focus on the Delta Dental insurance and how growth of the company improved access and overall health status. Delta Dental insurance was established in 1966. Over the years it faces many challenges to expand and increase access of dental care in community. The efforts paid the Delta Dental as widely accepted by community. This paper focuses on challenges Delta Dental had to face to build its pillar in the market. After evolution, Delta Dental insurance exponentially expanded due to its benefits and low primer. Over the years it has made strategies so that many people prefer Delta Dental over other insurances for maximum benefits, which helped improve oral health care. This paper will also highlight some of those strategies. Compare to other dental insurance company, Delta Dental insurance provide wide coverage and offer maximum benefits. This is a unique characteristic of the Delta Dental. We will talk about current structure of the Delta Dental and its future about how to improve oral care delivery of services to clients and enrollees, as well as how it fared compare to its peer insurance companies. Finally, the paper will mention about the future plan of the Delta Dental. In order to increase access to oral health care, in 1954, a group of dentists formed a dental service corporation in California, Oregon and Washington. It was lead by Washington Dental Service (WDS), and initiated by providing service to organized labor unions. Later, it expanded its services to all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Delta dental is now a fifteen billion dollar a year nationwide group providing dental insurance to 59 million Americans, making it one of the largest non-profits in the country (Ã¢â¬Å"Our Mission & HistoryÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Washington Dental Service was joined by more local organizations, which then created Delta Dental Plans Association (DDPA) in 1966. Shortly a year after, WDS partnered with the International Association of Machinists, which was the first step into creating a multi-state dental benefits program. There was a growing number of out of state subscribers, and therefore in order to meet their needs WDS worked with other Delta Dental member companies and Blue Cross/Blue Shield Association members, to continue serving its clients. It provided coverage until 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s this way (Ã¢â¬Å"Our Mission & HistoryÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). The program continued as such until a bid was won by Delta Dental of California being chosen as the dental benefits carrier for the Office of the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (OCHAMPUS) program. In order for the administration of this very large account to be centralized, other member companies agreed to share its provider data with Delta Dental of California sharing the administrative income and risk. As a result of this change, the National Provider File (NPF), and the establishment in 1990 of Delta USA Ã¢â¬â was created, the company responsible for overseeing dentist data and enabling the administration of national business (Ã¢â¬Å"Our Mission & HistoryÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Currently, there are 39 independent Delta Dental member companies operating in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. As one of the largest dental benefits provider DDPA provides coverage to more than 59.5 million people enrolled in more than 97,000 groups. The company was named Dental Care until 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and then it officially changed its name to Delta Dental (Ã¢â¬Å"About Us HomeÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). All Delta Dental companies are members, or affiliate of members, of the Delta Dental Plans Association Ã¢â¬â a network of 39 Delta Dental companies throughout the country. Delta Dental companies range from multi-state to single state (Ã¢â¬Å"About Us HomeÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). The multi-state programs consist of the following: Started in 1969, it provides coverage to over 1.5 million residents of New Jersey and Connecticut (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental of New JerseyÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). * Delta Dental Plan of Michigan Michigan Dental Service (MDS) was established in 1957, and in 1963 it received its non-profit status. In 1980 MDS expanded to Ohio and Indiana. In early 2006, Delta Dental of Michigan, with its affiliates in Ohio and Indiana, and Tennessee, signed an affiliation agreement under a new nonprofit holding company to strengthen their market positions and increase the number of Americans with dental benefits. In 2009, Delta Dental of Kentucky and Delta Dental of New Mexico affiliated with the family of companies. The newest affiliate, Delta Dental of North Carolina, joined the enterprise in 2010. Currently they cover 8.8 million individuals (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental of MichiganÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). It was founded in 1969, and later expanded to North Dakota. It is the largest program in the upper Midwest, serving 7500 Minnesota based on purchasing groups and 3.8 million members nationwide (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental of MinnesotaÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Delta Dental of Missouri started 50 years ago and has offered dental and vision benefits in the states of Missouri and South Carolina. More than 1,800 companies in Missouri and South Carolina have selected Delta Dental as their dental benefits carrier. The Delta-Vision plan started in 2011 (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental of MissouriÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Dentegra is not affiliated with Delta Dental Plans Association. However, this insurance company is authorized by Delta Dental Plans Association to market and underwrites certain national Delta Dental programs. This plan covers 23 million Americans. It serves the states of: Alabama, California, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New York, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Texas, Utah, Virgin Islands, West Virginia (Ã¢â¬Å"Why do more thanÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Hawaii Dental Service (HDS) is the first and largest nonprofit dental service corporation in Hawaii providing dental benefit plans to more than a half million members. This plan was incorporated on February 15, 1962, and soon 221 licensed dentists became charter members. HDS serves Guam, Hawaii and Northern Mariana Islands (Ã¢â¬Å"Caring, Visionary Dentists From HDSÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). NDD offers the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, providing quality dental care to millions of residents (Ã¢â¬Å"Northeast Delta DentalÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). This plan covers Alaska and Oregon. A research to find affordable dental health by LongshoremenÃ¢â¬â¢s and WarehousemenÃ¢â¬â¢s Union, led them to find Oregon Dental Service in 1955(Ã¢â¬Å"A trailblazer in healthÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). * The single state companies include: Delta Dental of Arizona that started in 1972. Delta Dental of Arkansas, Delta Dental of Colorado began in 1958. Delta Dental of Idaho, Delta Dental of Illinois, Delta Dental of Iowa, Delta Dental of Kansas, Delta Dental of Massachusetts, Delta Dental of Nebraska, Delta Dental of Oklahoma, Delta Dental of Rhode Island, Delta Dental of South Dakota, Washington Dental Service, Delta Dental of Wisconsin, Delta Dental of Wyoming (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental: MembersÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Delta Dental offers various plans for individuals, families and enrollees. There are 39 member companies of Delta Dental and each of them provides a variety of dental benefits programs. It also forms contacts with small and large business companies to provide dental insurance coverage for their employees (Ã¢â¬Å"Products and PlansÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). The various plans offered are the following: 1. Delta Dental PremierÃ ®: This is their traditional fee-for-service plan with largest dentist network with more than four out of five nationÃ¢â¬â¢s dentist participating (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental PremierÃ ®Ã¢â¬ , n.d., p. 2). It allows patients to get treated by any licensed dentist and also can change dentists at any time without notifying Delta Dental. The main attraction for this plan is that you do not have to pay more than the co-insurance percentage specified by your coverage (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s plansÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). The participating dentists agree to accept pre-negotiated fees and are prohibited from billing more. 2. Delta Dental PPOÃ¢â : This is a mid-priced fee-for-service plan with the secondary largest dentist network. It has an option to get treated by any dentists and still have lower out-of-pocket costs because the dentists in this network have agreed to do so (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s plansÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). It also has a Delta Dental PPO plus Premier plan which includes all the benefits of Delta Dental PPO and also allows for a patient to see a Delta Dental Premier dentist with benefits of that dentistÃ¢â¬â¢s contracted fee (Ã¢â¬Å" Delta Dental PPOÃ¢â Ã¢â¬ , n.d.). 3. DeltaCareÃ ® USA: It is a HMO-type prepaid plan with a large network of participating dentists. You must select a dentist from their network for this plan. The main features are there is no annual deductibles, no maximums for covered benefits and set copayments (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s plansÃ¢â¬ , n.d .). 4. Delta Dental Individual and Family: Individual and its family can get the same quality dental benefits as provided by the employers under this plan. Delta Dental offers different plans in different states (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental Individual and FamilyÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). 5. Delta Dental LegionÃ ®: It is also known as TRICARE Retiree Dental Program. Ã¢â¬Å"The first and only dental benefits plan created by Congress especially for Uniformed Services retirees and their family members and administered by Delta Dental of California.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"TRICARE Retiree Dental ProgramÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). 6. Delta Dental Patient DirectÃ ®: It is a dental discount plan for individual, families and groups that do not have dental benefits. The patients choose dentists from the network and pay them directly with the discount price at the time of their treatment. No paper work is required and it is available in the selected markets only (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental Patient DirectÃ ®Ã¢â¬ , n.d.). 7. DeltaVisionÃ ®: This is vision benefit plan, which is offered in the selected markets only. It includes various pre-negotiated pricing eye-care services, such as professional eye exams, eyewear, contact lenses and laser vision correction (Ã¢â¬Å"DeltaVisionÃ ®Ã¢â¬ , n.d.). 8. Delta Dental Member Companies: Ã¢â¬Å"They serve nearly one-third of the estimated 173 million Americans with Dental insurance, providing dental insurance coverage to more than 54 million people in more than 93,000 groups across the nation.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental Member CompaniesÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). There are other plans which are available in few selected populations and states like the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Dental Insurance Plan which is exclusively for AARP members and the Costco Group Dental Plan for the Individuals and Families, which is available only in California (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s plans, n.d.). Strengths and weaknesses (especially with healthcare delivery point of view): Delta Dental is the largest dental care carrier in the United States, and they provide coverage to more than 59.5 million people enrolled in more than 97,000 groups. The strengths are obviously regarding to the high level access of the dental care. Many years ago, most of people lost their teeth by middle age, but now many Americans have very good oral health because of the various Delta Dental Plans. They may keep their teeth throughout the lifetime. There are some strengths of Delta Dental according to a recent study (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental by the NumbersÃ¢â¬ , n.d.): * Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s nationwide dentist networks offer unprecedented access: * Delta Dental PremierÃ ® offers the largest network of dentists in the country Ã¢â¬â encompassing more than 142,000 dentists and more than 251,000 office locations. * Delta Dental PPOSM has a national network of more than 83,900 dentists practicing in more than 168,000 locations. * DeltaCareÃ ® USA provides more than 39,800 dentist office locations. * Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s PPO Plan delivers the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s best effective discount Ã¢â¬â averaging 19 percent nationally Ã¢â¬â resulting in nearly $3 billion in annual savings compared to dentistsÃ¢â¬â¢ average charges. * Delta Dental posted approximately $17 billion in premium revenue during fiscal year 2011, our 32nd consecutive year of financial gains. * Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s unique cost-control measures and contractual agreements with dentists help to ensure quality care at moderate fees, collectively saving subscribers with group dental coverage more than $9.0 billion in 2011. * In 2011, Delta Dental member companies processed more than 90 million dental claims or approximately 1.7 million every week, with an accuracy rate of 99.7 percent. Delta Dental focuses on the practice shari ng, best services, performance guarantees, brand name recognition and reputation, whereas, it still have weaknesses such as geographic limitations, innovative practices. Through the numbers above, people might think that we have more and more dentists in large networks so that we would get easy access to dental care, but how do these dentists located? Low-income patients still feel hard to get access to meet one dentist regularly due to the inconvenient transportation, difficulties on appointments, and so on. The president and CEO of Delta Dental, Radine (2011) wrote on Ã¢â¬Å"Annual Report 2011Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental takes pride in being a single-line carrier with unparalleled expertise in dental benefits, our specialty.Ã¢â¬ Indeed, they against larger, multi-line insurance companies, and they use competitive strategies to survive during the worst of the economic downturn. However, this kind of single-line model can also be a weakness of dental health care, because coordination of dentists needed to reinforce to increase the quality of companies health care performance. Single-line service may hinder such coordination in between the large dentist network, although they meet the needs for restraining the continuous increased costs. As each program have dissimilar strengths and weaknesses and according to Access to Dental Care/Oral Health Care (American Dental Association, 2012), there are still barriers to getting oral health care: * The dental sections in Medicaid and the State ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP), which are supposed to provide health care to disadvantaged Americans, rarely have enough money budgeted to do so. Federal law requires that Medicaid cover basic dental services. But many state programs fail to deliver care to even half of their eligible children. * Adult dental coverage through public health programs is even worse; many states simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not just about the money. Patients covered under public programs still face hurdles, such as transportation to dental appointments and the difficulty of missing work to keep the appointments. Taking care of ourselves is the key to good oral health, and too many Americans lack a basic understanding of how to brush, floss, eat a healthy diet and drink water with fluoride in it. * About one-third of public water systems are not fluoridated, even though that is the single most effective public health measure to protect against tooth decay. And also, people need to treat what form of coverage they require most and make sure the selected plan provides a low price for the needed processes. Comparison of Delta Dental with all other dental insurances: There are many essential things to keep in mind when deciding on a dental insurance plan, such as prices and co-payment options, local dentist availability, actual coverage, whether it meets your needs and more (Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Insurance ReviewÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Delta Dental Insurance ranking at number three after United Concordia and Ameritas Group Dental is one of the top ten insurance plans in the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"2013 Dental Insurance ComparisonÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). As one of the largest dental coverage plans, founded by dentists, it creates dental coverage plans based on current research and designed to keep people their healthiest and most productive (Ã¢â¬Å"Choosing the Right Dental PlanÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Delta Dental Insurance pursues their mission by increasing access to benefits, offering the largest national network of dentists, adding innovative new plan features, aggressively working to keep costs down, and supporting p hilanthropic programs that encourage better overall oral health. Delta Dental Insurance plans offer top of the line features and programs to make insurance services more accessible and convenient for its members. Some of the features that Delta Dental Insurance consists are secure and accessible sites for online enrollment, finding dentists and getting information about available plans. It offers Group/Employer plans, which is important as it gives companies information on the cost of getting dental insurance for their employees. This is important as well for families who wish to enroll other members of the family into the insurance plan. Also Delta Dental Insurance offers individual plans, provides up-front cost information for customers and has Better Business Bureau (BBB) accreditation (Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Insurance ReviewÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Better Business Bureau accreditation is definitely a plus, because they provide ratings based on customer service and satisfaction of members. In addition, Delta Dental Insurance offers multiple types of different plans for its consumers. There is Delta Dental Preferred Provider Organization (PPO), DeltaCareÃ ® USA (Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) option), Fee-for-Service (FFS) Plan, and they also used to offer Discount Plans. But the Discounted Plans are no longer offered by Delta Dental since majority of the members prefer PPO, HMO and FFS plans. The Delta Dental PPO plan is offered worldwide, and for that reason it is more accessible even if the customer relocates (Ã¢â¬Å"Choosing between a PPO and HMOÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). When choosing a PPO dentist, the out of-pocket costs of customers are often lower because PPO dentists have agreed to charge Delta Dental PPO patients reduced fees. The plan also pays enhanced benefits when patients visit a PPO dentist, so they pay only 20 percent of the PPO dentistÃ¢â¬â¢s contracted fee after their deductible for such services as fillings, oral surgery, root canals and treatment of gum disease in addition to other benefit enhancements (Ã¢â¬Å"Types of Dental PlansÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Delta Dental PPO does not cover teeth bleaching and other cosmetic procedures (Ã¢â¬Å"University of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬ , 2009). The good thing about a PPO plan is that customers have the freedom to choose any licensed dentist, anywhere in the world, each time the member or a family member requires treatment. And there is no referral required for specialty care. On the other hand, DeltaCareÃ ® USA (HMO option) customers must be residents of California to enroll. It provides individuals and their families with inclusive plans and easy referrals to specialists and even has a benefit for teeth bleaching. The plan emphasizes preventive care; so many services are provided at no cost. There is no annual plan maximum for DeltaCareÃ ® USA (Ã¢â¬Å"Types of Dental PlansÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). As an HMO member, customers are assigned to network dentist that accept the plans and they must be referred specialist by their assigned dentists. Fee-for-service plans, also known as indemnity or traditional plans, typically offer the greatest choice of dentists. It is up to the customer what dentist to choose or procedure they would like to purchase. Like PPO plans, when you visit a network dentist, you typically pay a certain percentage for each service (called coinsurance) and the plan pays the rest. The percentage usually varies by the type of coverage, such as diagnostic and preventive, major services, etc. (Ã¢â¬Å"Types of Dental PlansÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). However with FFS plan the member might pay a little extra than the PPO plan. And finally, the Discounted Plans are insurance plans that are offered at reduced rates. There is generally no paperwork, annual limits or deductibles, but you must visit a participating dentist to receive the discount. Also, you may be responsible for a greater portion of the treatment cost compare to PPO or HMO plan. The downside of this plan was the fact that there was a possibility of the dentists being changed annually, and new dentists would be assigned to the customers. But on the plus side, the rates that the customers would receive would be unbeatable. Figure 1 shows the continued growth in enrolment throughout the recession. This also proves that Delta Dental is the largest dental carrier in the United States and it has more than 26 million enrollees at present (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental: Annual Report2011Ã¢â¬ , n.d., p. 10). Figure 1: Shows the increase in the enrollment of Delta Dental plans by the population. The Y-axis shows the number of enrollees in increasing order and the X-axis shows the years starting from 2008-2012. Adapted from: Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental: Annual Report 2011.Ã¢â¬ (n.d., p. 10). Why is Delta Dental better and more successful than other insurances? Delta Dental offers some of the best dental insurance plans in the United States and around the world since 1954 and as the first company exclusively specializing in dental benefits, Delta Dental has been working hard to improve oral health around the world by providing access to the largest network of dentists, great service, top of the line care plans and developing relationships that emphasize prevention and positive oral health care results over the long term (Delta Dental, 2010). Over 56 million enrollees trust Delta Dental Insurance plans with their oral health and the numbers of satisfied members keep growing (Ã¢â¬Å"Why do more thanÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Ã¢â¬Å"In 2011, the vast majority of surveyed enrollees from our open network plans said they would recommend Delta Dental to a family or friend. That loyalty is also evident in our exceptionally high enrollee retention rate.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental 2011 Annual ReportÃ¢â¬ , n.d., p. 11). Figure 2 which is adapted from the Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental: Annual Report 2011Ã¢â¬ (n.d., p. 11) shows the percentage of enrollee satisfaction and enrollee retention in 2011. Figure 2: The percentage of Enrollee satisfaction and Enrollee Retention. 95% of the Enrollees were satisfied with their Delta Dental Plan and 99% of the Enrollees retained their Delta Dental plan. Adapted from: Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Dental: Annual Report 2011Ã¢â¬ (n.d., p. 11) Delta dental has proven itself as one of the good companies in the market but still they are working diligently to make it better. Delta Dental supports projects in conjunction with major universities and other leading research organizations that are designed to advance scientific knowledge and improve health. Among the projects, recently supports are: a study on the potential for dentists to play a greater role in the detection of health conditions such as diabetes; the cost impact of oral cancer; the application of salivary diagnostics to dentistry; and the development of biotechnology to advance health (Carruth, 2012). All these are the major projects of Delta Dental. Delta Dental is trying to identify ways to improve offerings in ways that will reduce costs while still covering the treatment our subscribers need to stay healthy. Delta Dental will focus on expanding their network in remote places and provide oral care. They are planning continue creating dynamic product lines that provide effective benefits to improve oral healthÃ¢â¬âand overall health Ã¢â¬â while reducing costs. Delta Dental would concentrate on providing good customer service staff as well as an automated phone line for inquiries. Delta Dental has received many awards in improving oral health care. Their current plans are focused on expanding their network and providing good care for the patients. Delta DentalÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies are such that not only patients but also dentist and employees are benefitted. They also focus on many researches to improve quality of care. Moreover, their future plans are focus on reducing cost and providing quality of care for patients. They are providing funds for incurable diseases like cancer and other malignancy. References: A trailblazer in health. n.d.). and your family. r local member companies. Retrieved form: http://www.deltadental.com/Public/PlanInfo/planAddressStart.jsp Delta Dental (n.d.). DeltaVisionÃ ®.