Saturday, August 31, 2019

Seeing the situations that over rule an administration

Seeing the situations that over rule an administration everyday makes an administrator of the school wonder with regards which part of education does the institution still needs to work with besides the aspect of student achievement. It could not be denied that the institution has already reached its peak aim of producing student achievers who are both academically and athletically serious about their schooling.However, besides just the idea of achieving, the proposal that follows tries to embark on the idea of making certain changes with regards the morality of the students as this is one of the most neglected areas of importance in the institution. PRESENTING ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT MODELS IN A SCHOOL ALREADY CITED FOR HIGH STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Section 1: Introduction 1. 1 Background of the Study The schools and other educational institutions today are facing large problems regarding the issue on the students’ lack of self discipline resulting to under-achievements of the stud ents in the school as well as violence within the school premises.How close are these two issues related to each other? Mostly, the age-stage of which the student enters when he attends secondary school is ranged as the puberty stage of an individual’s growth. According to psychologists, this particular stage of growth introduces an individual to several major decisions that he has to face along the way towards his maturity. Hence, confusion of priorities and aggravation of depression through the environment occurs (Coon, 1999, 88).As reports could attest to this fact, it is not that hard to understand that there is an essential need of restructuring the procedures of the school when it comes to disciplining students who are attending secondary education. This is the reason why the researcher of this paper opted to discuss the issue mentioned. The timeliness of the research would indeed help in solving the problems at present especially with regards the issues of education, d iscipline and student achievements. 1. 2 Significance of the ProblemThe problem as mentioned earlier directly affects the achievements of the students in their schools. This means that because of the lack of discipline, the students of the secondary school level face the challenges of being misaligned when it comes to their focus and at some point become highly attracted to drugs and violence. This is the fact when it comes to school procedures. The actual reports that pertain to the said issue are indeed much disturbing and further more alarming to the institutional boards.As most of the schools affected by this dilemma are public educational institutions at [79%] whilst Private schools are affected by at least [45%], it is indeed necessary to identify the reasons behind the incidents that lead to students’ lesser interest in school and a higher rate of attraction towards drugs and violence. Through the proceedings of this particular research, it is expected that the reasons behind the ongoing issue in schools would be further regulated and controlled by institutional administrations through the use of psychological and psychosocial motivation.1. 3 Research Questions To be bale to attend to the most important issues related to this particular problem, the researcher decided to use the following questions as guidelines for the completion of this particular study: †¢Ã‚  Ã‚     What are the primary sources of the discipline of the students? Do those sources pertain to the personal or the social connection of the students to the society? †¢Ã‚  Ã‚     How are students reacting to the discipline that they learn from their homes and from their environment?What are the elements that are so far affecting the vision of the students towards their achievements in school as well as towards their future? †¢Ã‚  Ã‚     How are drugs and violence related to the effects of lack of discipline among students? These particular questions shall serve as the primary foundation of the study. These questions shall be the settling ground of the researcher in finding the right sources for the completion of this paper as well as deciding on the right method to be used to collect actual data for the validation of this study. 1. 4 Purpose of the StudyTo add up to the stress that this study places on the topic to be discussed in this paper, the following presentation of the purposes would primarily support the existing statements of the problem to assist in the validation of the facts that are to be presented. The purposes of this study are: †¢Ã‚  Ã‚     TO assist the ongoing researches on school students’ discipline issues and help the institutions solve the impending results of the said problems. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚     To make assessments on how the issues could be investigated through the use of psychological assessments and actual-report-based evaluations of the situation.†¢Ã‚  Ã‚      To strengthen the procedures of s tudent motivation that is already currently used in schools in the society today. The utilization of these purposes within the completion of this study certainly helps in aligning the focus of the researcher. Hence, by doing so, the researcher expects that the focus would be on the cycle of events that involve The source of discipline, the results of the influential elements of the environment to the discipline of the students and the future of the students afterwards. Section 2: Literature Review 2. 1 What Psychology Says and how Anthropology RelatesBoth psychology and anthropology concentrate on the behavioral study of humans. Through the use of the said studies, the reasons behind the occurring behaviors of students in secondary school could be well identified. With regards the issue on discipline and how it affects the students, Psychologists claim that the situation is much controlled by the upbringing of the students. The original discipline that they receive from their homes are supposed to be the basis of why they act the way they do when they are already mingling with their peers or with the society as it is.(Coon, 1999, 89) Moreover, girls of the same age are differently reacting to the discipline that they receive from their homes compared to that of the boys. Anthropological studies attest to the claims of psychology as the said field of human understanding particularly points out the instance by which the discipline received by students from their homes are directly affected by the elements of the environment when they already begin to mingle with their peers or the society. As mentioned earlier, the effects vary.To young girls, the discipline that they receive from their homes are more likely more evident in their system of dealing with others as young girls are expected to be more emotionally and personally attached to the their families compare to that of the boys who are at some point more affected by the elements of change that they encounter in dealing with other people especially with their peers (Coon, 1999, 90). Knowing the sources of the discipline, it is essential to evaluate the claims of both psychology and anthropology through the use of the actual reports that are further presented for better understanding of the readers.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Difference between growing up in rich and a poor family Essay

My character, physical, emotional, and psychological development would drastically be different had I been born and raised in a poor family as opposed to a rich family. Growing up in a rich family, I would be more or less secure in a lot of aspects. For example, I wouldn’t worry about my basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, and education, among others. My emotional and psychological development would also be nourished as I would be provided with things that would facilitate my growth such as toys and books, among others. It can also be said that I would also be physically fit as I will always have ample food. In short, in a rich family, I would have a well-provided and highly secure life in which most aspects of my growth and development would flourish. On the other hand, growing in an impoverished family would have significantly different circumstances. I wouldn’t have a guaranteed education nor would I be assured of my basic needs. My emotional and psychological development would be very difficult as I may become envious of rich people and even development a feeling of resentment and shame towards my family’s status. Since I wouldn’t always have enough food, most of the time I would be physically unhealthy or malnourished. According to article, â€Å"The Science of Early Childhood Development: Closing the Gap of What We Know and What We Do,† which was done by Harvard University’s National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, the early stages of childhood is a critical stage in the over-all development of a person. In the article, it is said that the early development of â€Å"cognitive skills, emotional well-being, social competence, and sound physical and mental health† (4) lays a strong foundation for success into adulthood. Moreover, the article also noted that high levels of stress in childhood can significantly affect a person’s behavior and physical and mental health. Meaning to say, the circumstances and the environment during childhood can significantly affect my emotional, physical, and psychological status which is why growing in a rich family and poor family can be significantly different from each other. *Word Count : 354 Works Cited â€Å"The Science of Early Childhood Development. † January 2007. National Scientific Council On The Developing Child, Harvard University. 29 January 2009 .

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Bharti Airtel Mobile Services Marketing Essay

Bharti Airtel Mobile Services Marketing Essay Airtel is the 3rd largest mobile operator in the world in terms of subscriber base. However, its revenue per subscriber is significantly lower as compared to American and European counterparts. However, Airtel has been facing pressures due to slowing revenue growth and slimming margins. While a lot of the factors are macroeconomic, this paper attempts to do a microeconomic analysis on Airtel and its environment. An Analysis of Bharti Airtel Mobile Services Ltd. Using Microeconomic Tools Bharti Airtel Limited, a part of Bharti Enterprises, is one of the leading providers of telecommunication services with significant presence in India. It has its operations spread over 20 countries across South Asia, Africa and Channel Islands. Profile Bharti Airtel has abou0074 194.183 million subscribers in India and South Asia and 55.855 million GSM Mobile customers in Africa as of the end of June 2012. The Proportionate Revenue of Bharti Airtel as on June 30, 2012 is à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¹ 193,501 milli on (Overview). Currently, Airtel is the largest cellular service provider in India in terms of number of subscribers. Bharti Airtel holds the maximum percentage of market share in wireless connections at 20.67%, Vodafone is at 16.96%, Reliance at 14.68%, Idea at 12.88% and BSNL is at 10.81% (News report – Medianama) The businesses at Bharti Airtel have been structured into three individual strategic business units (SBU’s): Mobile services, Telemedia services (ATS) & Enterprise services (Carriers & Services to Corporates) Ownership and Organizational Structure: Bharti Airtel was established on July 7, 1995 as a public listed company headquartered in New Delhi, India. With effect from Jan 13, 2010, a new integrated organizational structure has emerged with an objective to enhance Airtel focus on expanding operations in international markets beyond India and South Asia and further consolidate its leadership position in India. The transformed organizational structure consi sts of two distinct Customer Business Units (CBU) with clear focus on B2C (Business to Customer) and B2B (Business to Business) segments. Bharti Airtel’s B2C business unit comprehensively serves the retail consumers, homes and small offices, by combining business units such as Mobile, Telemedia, Digital TV and other emerging businesses (like M-commerce, M-health, M-advertising etc.). Figure 1: Airtel’s Organization Chart (Overview) The B2C organization encompasses Consumer Business and Market Operations. Bharti Airtel has understood the importance of its partners to remain competitive in a dynamic business environment. As a step in that direction, the Supply Chain (SCM) function has been created with a mandate to develop partner relationships to maximize mutual opportunities for growth and profitability. The SCM organization has a central core team of supply chain subject matter experts and execution teams operating under different business divisions across the country . Business Model Focus on core competencies and outsource the rest Airtel is probably one of the best run companies in India. It has advantages of both having a massive size and being in a very high growth industry. The secret of its enormous success owes a lot to its business model. Airtel focuses solely on two things: Customer acquisition & Servicing and business development/Expansion. The main focus of Airtel has been on Data IP solutions, conferencing and Video solutions and wants to grab the potential of market of these business sectors. The other functions such as hardware, network, backend applications (billing etc.), value added services and even telecom infrastructure are all outsourced. Airtel was the first player in India in pioneering such a business model. Airtel has outsourced its Network Management services to players like Nokia Siemens Networks and Ericsson, while its backend application is taken care by IBM. It was also the first to divest its hard assets, i.e. â₠¬â€œ its telecom towers – to a separate company and lease them back themselves as well as monetize surplus bandwidth by selling to other operators.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Management Strategy and Decision Making Assignment

Management Strategy and Decision Making - Assignment Example s main focus was made on the increase of returns to the shareholders, the achievement of the Just Group strategy could be partially evaluated based on the dividends payout. Thus, in 2013 the company informed about annual dividends increase up to 38 cents per share. This increase has comprised 2% comparing with the dividends for 2012 (Premier Investment Limited Annual Report 2013). However, taking into consideration the fact that for 2009 it was declared that dividends were 75 cents per share, the company’s performance could be challenged. On the other hand, this performance could demonstrate strong financial position of the company as the global financial crisis might have had more adverse effects on the shareholder’s value. In order to achieve its strategy of increase of returns to the shareholders, the company has identified six strategic focus areas, such as: expansion and growth of the business through the internet up to 10% of sales; reinvigoration of the five key brands; organization-wide cost efficiency program; two phase gross margin expansion; significant growth of Peter Alexander; and significant growth of Smiggle brands (Premier Investment Limited Annual Report 2013). By reviewing the company’s performance results reported in 2013 it is possible to state the there has been made a substantial progress towards achievement of the above listed strategies. For example, the company has reported that its e-commerce activity has grown significantly. To achieve this result, there were launched 1day delivery program (within Australia) and mobile sites for all brands of the company. In terms of the growth margin expansion strategy, the company has also achieved significant results as gross margin has been expanded by 117 basis points in 2013 (Premier Investment Limited Annual Report 2013). Growth of Peter Alexander brand was also significant in FY 2013, as the total sales have exceeded 17%. Taking into consideration that in 2009 this brand comprised 7, 7% of

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 - Essay Example Crash in the housing market also came under the occurrence in many regions of the world, as an outcome, a huge number of vacancies lingered. In addition, the crisis also played a vital role and made a deep impact in the breakdown of many businesses with falling off in consumer prosperity. The 2007 financial crisis is also termed as the Great Recession, the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), and Credit Crunch (Kolb, pp.77-139). The destruction of international financial institutions was outcome of the crash down of US housing bubbles, which lead to decline in the real estate pricing. Housing bubble is an economic bubble that arises in the local or international real estate market from time to time when the worth of the real estate properties faces a swift increase, which becomes unmatchable with the earnings and other economic factors. The financial crisis came to an end until mid of 2009, although it had left an indelible imprint across the globe that is still coming under experience. Ac cording to some research conducted by economists, it came under limelight that the crisis was completely manmade and was the result of wrong financial decisions. The stakeholders specifically the owners focused on the profit aspect of their business and neglected the risk factor involved in this profit making activity (United Nations, pp.1-10). In the years 2005-2006, the US housing bubble was packed, overcrowded and was at its highest point, which lead to the abrupt ground or the main cause due to which the crisis happened (Kolb, pp.77-139). The default rates that were high previously on subprime and adjustable rate mortgages further skyrocketed. The housing prices started to increase at a high percentage as banks started to provide the prospective mortgagee with more loans. Prospects were motivated by banks to take high loans ignoring the segment of interest rates, with a perspective and confidence that they would be able to repay the loans in less time. The housing prices dropped at a drastic speed as soon as the interest rates started climbing. Housing and credit upsurge lead to augmentation of various financial accords, namely mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and collateralized debt obligations (CDO) at an unprecedented rate. This caught the attention of the local and international investors and corporations to plunge in the US housing market as they observed an opportunity to make potential profits from this market. With the turn down in the housing value, innumerable people including the global investors/institutions, borrowers and investors in subprime MBS faced heavy and noteworthy losses. The decline in housing value was so severe that had they auctioned the house, the recovery of the mortgage price would not have been possible. In 2006, the lenders of the housing loans received an incentive of foreclosure. They approached the legal officials for the recovery of their money (Kolb, pp.77-139). The banking organizations got a financial power and they s tarted absorbing customers’ wealth to make for their losses. This crisis was not only come under observance in housing sector but other factions of the economy also experienced the same drastic effects. The main reason for the crisis includes a number of factors. The mortgages come under sanction to a huge number of people, without

Monday, August 26, 2019

The falls care pathway within the Ambulance service Essay

The falls care pathway within the Ambulance service - Essay Example A copy of the patient report form is left with the patient with a non transport form. Patients referred must be over 18 years of age, referred after a trip or fall Patients who cannot be referred are under 18, under effects of alcohol or drugs, acutely ill with psychiatric problems and maternity patients. The falls team prevents unnecessary admission, provides fast multi professional assessments and the provision of enabling care, focus on rehabilitation and return to previous level of independence, provides full generic urgent multi disciplinary assessment and treatment, refers to appropriate health and social care professionals, manages bowel and catheter problems, supports patients with uti, chest infections, copd and diabetes, and provides palliative care. The importance of our chosen pathway: Emergency medical services include both hospital and non hospital services. They are a very important part of any health system. Emergency medical services are essentially very important fo r most health authorities in countries where morbidity and mortality rate due to injury is high. F alls present a huge problem for the health and independence of older people. Having a fall as one ages is not evitable, however the associated mortality and morbidity from a fall is high. Individual consequences range from distress, pain, physical injury and loss of confidence to complete loss of independence. There are many strategies for those who have already had a fall or fracture. The falls care pathway within the Ambulance service makes a very significant impact on the number of people who have become victims of the attack. The falls care pathway that I have chosen is very beneficial and fruitful for the injured people by falls. The scheme is beneficial for both patients and those in need of ambulance. This is why we have chosen this particular pathway. Under this pathway it is assumed that patients who have become victims of fall injury are likely to become fall victims again. T his immensely increases the risk of their injury, and gives them broken bones and reduced quality of life. Additionally the health care falls prevention team analyses the needs of fallers in our pathway. They are well directed and provides them with additional support and equipment so that their risk of falling down again is minimized. Our pathway will ensure that the best possible service is provided to patients who are suffering from injuries. The pathway that we have chosen is beneficial because it involves engaging people in targeted and evidence based prevention ; management programmes that improves their overall fitness, health and ability to comply with medical regimes. It will provide them with the opportunity to live a life with high confidence and free from disability; the working environment is conducive to team work and beneficial for it. (ICPUS ) The issues that we encountered: The issues that we encountered: This is an emergency based work in which we have to be on our toes at all time. There I a different care every other day. For instance we encountered a case related to Maria who is a 73 year old woman working in a factory ; and she came to the attention of the health service in October 2001. During the last two years she has experienced memory troubles and behavioral changes, resulting in loss of self-determination in her daily life (CIRS severity: 2.6/5; CIRS co-morbidity: 5/13; MMSE: 14/30; Cornell scale: 19/38; NPI: 69/144).Maria has severe problems with mobility that led to falls and accidents and she couldmt

Legalizing marijuana for recreational use Speech or Presentation

Legalizing marijuana for recreational use - Speech or Presentation Example This can be put into a few basic facts. Both Washington’s Initiative 502 and Colorado’s Amendment 64 which legalized cannabis for people aged 21 and above, proposed a relatively heavy taxation on the drug. They called for a 25 percent tax rate to be imposed on the product three times; from grower to processor, from processor to retailer, and from retailer to customer, (Smith 1). While it is not clear the amount of revenue this would raise, estimates for this measure are out at about $500 million. According to a study carried out by the Colorado Center on Law and Policy, about 13 percent of people in Colorado use the substance. This translates to about half a million people. By legalizing this retail market, the regulation could raise about $46 million in combined local and state revenue between excise and sale taxes. In California, a similar measure in 2010 known as Proposition 19 was estimated to earn $352 million in tax revenue annually, (Smith 1). This revenue can go to a state fund where it can fund the construction of schools. Besides raising revenue, marijuana is used for medical purposes. It is commonly referred to as medical marijuana. According to Stone (1), marijuana has long been utilized in treating ailments that are associated with inflammation and pain. It is also used to relieve symptoms that are related to chronic illnesses such as cancer. For example, for many decades, cannabis has been used to treat glaucoma. It usually lowers the intraocular pressure when treating glaucoma symptoms, and is more effective when smoked, ingested, inhaled, or administered intravenously. Also, the National Cancer Institute (1) recognizes cannabis and its components as a treatment for individuals with cancer-related symptoms. Besides these, medical marijuana has been associated with the treatment of AIDS, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, anxiety, and chronic pain. The legalization of marijuana could also significantly cut down on crime. On one hand, it i s illegal. On the other hand, the people demand and want to use it. This provides room for a middleman who carries out the illicit trade, and hence crime. Therefore, legalizing marijuana would mean that drug cartels will lose business, there will be less crime in borders since there is no need for trafficking, and crime will ultimately reduce in the streets and in the country. According to former Seattle police chief Stamper (1), this will free up police resources that can be focused on tackling other crimes such as robberies, burglaries, and sexual assaults. However, there needs to be guidelines that control the use of marijuana. These should be in form of legislations. One such legislation made in the California is the Medical Marijuana Regulation, Control and Taxation Act, which stipulates the guidelines for the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. Other guidelines should include the amount of cannabis that a person can be in possession at any one time, or the number of mariju ana plants that one can plant at his or her backyard. These political guidelines need to be clearly set, implemented, and enacted. Without such guidelines, there would be a total mess with students even â€Å"puffing† on the school corridors just like cigarettes. Therefore, it means that once marijuana is legalized, society has to deal with it. Many opponents to the legalization claim that it draws the path to drug usage in the society. According to Citizens Against the Legalization of

Sunday, August 25, 2019


CONSTRUCTING AN INTERNATIONAL REAL ESTATE PORTFOLIO - Coursework Example Implementation complexities in constructing an effective portfolio possess risk factors, which make it necessary for crucial exposure and assessment of opportunities for the investment in the international real estate market. There has been an increase in international investments especially in international real estate markets, which is clear from the UK listed and unlisted wholesale markets. It is evident that most products fall under the value-added or opportunistic and risk or reward; hence they offer a wide range of the investments returns. The international listed real estate funds have different collective strategies according to different regions as indicated by fig.1. There is a variation of real estate types depending on the countries or country targeted. Consequently, there are different ways of gaining exposure to the investable market. Various options are employed to acquire and manage equity interests for international real estate investments. The aim of the paper is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of applying various methods for gaining exposure to the real estate investments. In addition, it evaluates the different methods used to fully acquire and manage equity interests in international real estate investments. Real estate refers to; the commercial sectors of office, retail, industrial, and leased residential real estate sectors. The real estate appraisers in the UK reflect value of asset factors such as expected income growth, risk of liquidity, management costs, income growth related risks, and the tenant default risk that enables the capitalization of the current and future income expectations and streams. This indicates that the international real estate investment can offer a number of investment features that have different risk levels. The different investment procedures makes it possible for the income streams to be cut in many ways and offers

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Labor Union History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Labor Union History - Essay Example Labor unions became prominent in the aftermath of the Civil War. The National Labor Union was the first US union. Another famous labor union was the American Federation of Labor which was established in the late nineteenth century. It acted as a federation for skilled workers unions. In 1905 the Industrial Workers of the World was formed to represent unskilled workers. There are two umbrella organizations for unions. One of them is AFL-CIO and the Change to Win Federation. They have advocated policies that are beneficial for workers. They also have played an important role in increasing the working conditions of workers. This paper traces the history of American labor unions from World War II till the present era (Vittoz, 45). The Congress of Industrial Organizations was established by an autocratic person John Lewis. The CIO organized millions of workers in the 1930s. Lewis was a charismatic speaker and strategist whose speeches forced the closure of the coal industry to ensure that his demands were met. Lewis supported President Roosevelt at the onset of the New Deal. Roosevelt had tremendous appeal with workers. Lewis sent organizers to mobilize thousands of workers to support President Roosevelt. He was one of the main financial supporters of Roosevelt. It is estimated that he contributed over five hundred thousand dollars to Roosevelt's election campaign (Zieger, 65). Lewis organized trade unions in the... By organizing steelworkers, Lewis clashed with the AFL. The AFL represented workers from all industries rather than a particular trade (Zieger, 85). Lewis pushed for a change in the policy of the AFL with regards to industrial organizing. He did this by calling upon leaders of other unions within the AFL. William Green who was the president of AFL opposed Lewis and considered him as an enemy. The CIO was now known as the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Lewis firmly established the organization as a rival federation opposed to the AFL. Lewis's organization provided the financial muscle to the CIO as they organized drives to recruit workers and form trade unions. Phillip Murray was the protg of Lewis. He was made the head of the Steel Workers Organizing Committee. The UAW conducted the Flint and Chrysler sit-down strikes in the 1930s in which Lewis successfully used negotiations to approve worker demands. The CIO had a total strength of 2,850,000 workers in 1942. The economic depression of the 1930s caused a decline in the labor union membership. The union movement was also marked by failures to obtain concessions from the mass production industries and to organize the workers. However during the 1930s, the US congress passed legislation during the New Deal. Collective bargaining was allowed by the passing of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933. Businesses were also required to maintain good relations with trade unions under the 1935 Wagner Act. Prices and wages were stabilized by the National Recovery Administration. A number of regulations were imposed that set price and production standards for all kinds of goods. However this had an adverse impact on the labor unions since employers had to hire people at an expensive

Friday, August 23, 2019

Integrated Marketing Communications (Marketing Communications Essay

Integrated Marketing Communications (Marketing Communications Management, Copley) - Essay Example This is more like an effective communication with the target market. Sales promotion is a marketing communication tool specifically designed to provide consumers with some incentive inducing immediate response, possibly in the form of purchase. Sales promotion tools and techniques may include coupons, sampling, refunds and rebate, bonus packs, price off deals. For example Kellogg's may come up with a new brand of cereals. To encourage product trial, Kellogg may place a coupon in Kellogg's Corn Flakes. The crossruff coupon may encourage those who purchase and use Kellogg's Corn Flakes to try the new Kellogg brand. When we talk of sampling, Proctor and Gamble has always used sampling to get homemakers to try a new brand of detergent. They mail a sample to adult females in households across US. Sampling is very common with food items. A decade ago the advertising to sales promotion ratio was around 60:40, but today in many consumer packaged companies sales promotion accounts for 65 to 75 percent of the combined budget. Haagen Dazs ran a cents off sales promotion called Sweet Charity where the price savings would be contributed to support public television. This offer enhanced the Haagen Dazs image by making it "a patron of the art". Public relation is an important tool to maintain a positive image of the firm in the minds of the customers to enhance repeat patronage. The most common use of public relations tools to achieve goals of the habit formation strategy is publicity. Microsoft's campaign launching Windows 95 was an MPR success story. No paid ads for Windows 95 had appeared by August 24, 1995, the launch day. Yet everyone knew about it. The Wall Street Journal estimated about that 3000 headlines, 6852 stories, and over 300 million words were dedicated to Windows 95 from July 1st to August 24th. Microsoft team around the world executed attention-grabbing publicity. Another example of Wine Growers of California who had hired public relations firm of Daniel J. Edelman, Inc, to develop a publicity campaign to convince Americans that wine drinking is a pleasurable part of good living and to improve the image and market share of California wines. Direct Marketing Direct Marketing will be addressed as a marketing communication tool used in the form of direct forms of distribution. Direct mail, catalogs, telemarketing, direct response advertising, new electronic media and direct selling are one of the few examples. Citicorp, AT&T, IBM, Ford and American Airlines have used integrated direct marketing to build profitable relations with customers over the years. Retailers such as Saks Fifth Avenue, Bloomingdales and Fredrick's of Hollywood regularly send out catalogs to supplement in store sales. Personal Selling Personal selling which is the face-to-face interaction with one ore more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions and procuring orders. Looking at this example we learn how John Deere used personal selling as means of selling its products. In 1993 when the dwindling demand for farm equipment and the aggressive actions of competitors pushed Deere's managers to create a strategy that involved its hourly assembly workers in finding and approaching prospects. Deere sent some of its experienced and knowledgeable workers to regional trade exhibits across North America to pitch the company's equipment to dealers and farmers. Once the new reps had wooed potential customers with

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Learning children to play percussion instruments Essay Example for Free

Learning children to play percussion instruments Essay The role of a teaching assistant is to maximise learning, create a safe and positive learning environment and to minimise behaviour problems. I would contribute to the lesson by trying to achieve this goal in the following way: I would ensure all the instruments are ready for the lesson, having checked they are in good repair and unlikely to cause injury. I would supervise the children using the instruments, i.e. check they hold them correctly, use them appropriately be a good role model demonstrating how instruments should be held and used. I would support children who are experiencing difficulties I would monitor childrens ability to use instruments, follow instructions, achieve outcome of lesson Safety would be about the state of the instruments, childrens use of them and ensuring mouth pieces are hygienically treated and maintained Making sure that music sheets are available if needed. I would also monitor their behaviours by supervising and to try and minimize disruptive behaviour, which will help the children keep interest in the lesson. I would also ensure that I carry out observations on the children to make sure they have the ability to use the instruments and to achieve the outcome of the lesson. As a teaching assistant I should also be prepared to offer feedback at the end of the session to either the children or the teacher.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Edward Taylor Essay Example for Free

Edward Taylor Essay Living during the late 1600’s, Edward Taylor lived through a time of many hardships. With the constant battles between colonists and natives going on, he lived in fear of his home and life being in jeopardy. Yet, through this terrifying time, he wrote poetry that earned him the name of the best colonial poet. Some aspects that can be looked at of his writing are his style, subject matter, and tone. The first area of his writing is his style. Edward Taylor’s style consists of both easy to understand sentences, and a fluid happy word choice that shows the loving side of god. An example of his style is â€Å"Lord clear my misted sight that I May hence view they divinity†(Taylor). This sentence shows his focus on god and word choice, and comes from his piece â€Å"Upon a Wasp Chilled with Cold†. The next area to go over of Taylor’s writing is his subject matter. The main aspects that he writes about are God and how he is gracious, and how he is evident in every day life events. This can be shown in the passage â€Å"My words, and actions, that their shine may fill My ways with glory and Thee glorify†(Taylor), from his writing â€Å"Huswifery†. He is very clear on what he wants to show and clear about his Puritan faith. Last of all the areas of Taylor’s writing is his tone. The tone of his pieces show a very happy and hoping attitude toward life. He clearly shows how he wants people to see the grace of go and how they can be forgiven, rather than the radical view of God’s wrath. This tone can be seen in the passage â€Å"Where all my pipes inspired upraise An heavenly music furred with praise† (Taylor), from his piece â€Å"Upon a Wasp Chilled with Cold†. Edward Taylor goes down as a great colonial poet for a reason, and through his work that reason is easily seen. With aspects like style, subject matter, and tone, his writing is a crisp example of how to incorporate God into poetry in a hopeful matter. Everything about Taylor, from his childhood to his adult life, portrays his amazing character and strong love towards God. His writing has surely made the impact on people that he wanted of showing people Gods grace.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Effect of Computer on Design Creativity

Effect of Computer on Design Creativity Are computers taking away the creativity in design? Abstract Computers are an integral part of todays design process. They, computers represent a time and cost saving device that aids designs in rendering shapes and looking at a broader parameter of possibilities than would be possible otherwise. In looking at design, one must be aware that it represents a part of a business process that has competitive considerations. The foregoing includes costs, materials, innovation, uniqueness, distinction, functionality, and utility in gathering clients and well as customers. The contribution of computers in this highly charged environment has helped to drive down costs, while developing innovation as well as approaches to creativity. As such, designers have been able to expand their creativity through the ability of the computer to permit them to look at more possibilities in their search to arrive at solutions that fit within the preceding parameters. As software programs advance on a technological basis, newer and more powerful programs are increasingly taking on more roles in the design process. This represents the foundation of this examination in that generative design has captured a new part of the preceding in that software can generate designs based upon input parameters. Is the preceding innovative? The answer would have to be a yes. Does the foregoing aid in the business aspects in terms of broadening the range of potential possibilities, and helping to keep costs low? Again, yes is the answer. So, computers do have their place in increasing the efficiency and range of design outputs. The question is, has their role starting to become so large that they, computers are taking over the design function, relegating the designer to a computer operator? Chapter 1 Introduction In equating the question as to whether computers are taking away creativity in design, an exploration into the key words of the examination is seemingly in order. The Houghton Mifflin (2007) dictionary defines generative as â€Å"Having the ability to originate, produce, or procreate†. Design, represents the process whereby one creates, fashions, executes and or constructs according to a plan (Merriam Webster (2007). The design process, depending upon the application that is being utilised, represents trial and error in working through the steps to the final design that fits the parameters of the project (Brown, 2001, p. 2). In order to focus in on the context, design as it relates to architecture, construction and new products such as vehicles, and machines shall represent the core of the examination as represented by the question as opposed to the design of clothing, packaging, and related forms whereby the product is designed based upon primarily internal considerations as opposed to client, and or competitive, and market considerations. As brought forth by McDonagh et al (2004, p. 13): â€Å"As established products have become more similar in technology, functionality, price and quality, companies have turned to design to differentiate their offerings through human-centred innovation and to create stronger emotional connections with their customers. More companies have followed the example of Apple, Braun and Philips, recognising design as a strategic function in their business-not one subservient to marketing, manufacturing or engineering† The design process has increasingly become more competitive in terms of differentiating products, and appealing to clients and customers, as â€Å"†¦companies seek competitive advantage through more integrated offerings, with differentiation through all points of customer contact that express their brand† (McDonagh et al, 2004, p. 13). Thus, design is a critical function most businesses, taking differing forms, thus the election to restrict this examination to the aforementioned categories. Rittel and Weber (1973, p. 158) tell us that design problems are more than just complex, they, design problems, represent what they term as â€Å"wicked problems†. Moran and Carroll (1996, p. 4) in elaborating on the aforementioned advise that design problems â€Å"†¦be stated per se or solved in the sense of definitive answers, because the criteria for evaluating goals and outcomes are innumerable, subjective, and conflicting†. They add that (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 4): â€Å"Any solution will generate waves of consequences that interact among themselves and with other problems, changing the problem situation in irreversible and unknown ways. Thus, each wicked problem is merely a symptom of further wicked problems; their solutions cannot even be finally evaluated.† In understanding the nuances as well as ramifications of design, it is necessary to note that design is a process that it usually proceeds under conditions that are represented by a high degree of uncertainty, whereby answers to critical facets cannot be had (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 4). The design process also is constrained by real world considerations as represented by time, and budgets, thus the boundaries of the process, design, are not unlimited. Thus, in view of constraints, the design process needs both ingenuity as well as creativity. As brought forth by Rittel and Weber (1973, p. 158), the complexity of design problems make design projects too large for on individual to handle as multiple â€Å"†¦technical disciplines are required, as well as management discipline, in addition to creative and integrative skills† (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 5). Evidence supporting the technical difficulties involved in the design process is presented by Brown (1998, pp. 45-46), who states the failure rate for new buildings of all types before construction starts is around 10%. For new products, such as electronics and related categories, the failure rate as a result of design is generally within Browns (1998, pp. 45-46) range, however there are exceptions, such as the 33% failure rate that Microsofts new Xbox 360 is experiencing (DailyTech, 2007). Pressures to get it right represent a critical business decision, whether there is a client involved, or if the design process represents an internal process for the companys own products. Thus, time, cost, simplicity, and failure rate minimisation are critical business concerns that the designer must operate within. Thus, the design function, while being creativity, is also subject to the foregoing pragmatic considerations. Generative design software represents the processes whereby new designs can be automatically produced at the push of a button (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). The preceding represents computer software taking various design specifications and formulating them into a final design matrix based upon the input variables within the software program (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). The basic forms, patterns and or objects is modified automatically by an algorithm, thus permitting faster trail and error processes (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). The process of automatic design generation permits thousands of differing designs to be produced, as well as permitting new ones, as the design process is not restricted to the designers imagination (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). It, generative design is â€Å"†¦ the power or function of generating, originating, producing, or reproducing† (Merriam Webster, 2007). The designing of architecture, and products represent processes that are three-dimensional (Beilharz, 2004). Parameters as represented by colour, texture, utility design input constraints, space, regulations, gravity, materials, heat (in the case of certain products) and costs are the boundaries to the structure as well (Beilharz, 2004). The application of generative systems to design affects the design process phases and â€Å"†¦ integrates the macrocosmic and microcosmic relations of the design system†. For the purpose of clarification, macrocosmic represents â€Å"and large or complex system or structure made up of similar smaller systems or structures †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (, 2007), whereas microcosmic is defined as â€Å" a little world †¦ a community or other unity that is an epitome of a larger unity† (Merriam Webster, 2007). This examination shall look at whether or not computers are taking away creativity in design by focusing on generative design, and how it affects the designer. In delving into the preceding, a number of important areas shall be examined in order to understand the design process, what it entails, along with what creativity is and how it is utilised. Chapter 2 -The Design Process In designing a product, building, vehicle or machine the principle output as represented by the design process is its specification as represented by either an annotated CAD rendering and or a schematic (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 324). The design rationale represents the why the design is done in the manner that it is, with the foregoing including various types of information (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 324). Fry (1999, p. 22) takes a wider view of design, stating that â€Å"†¦ it is one of the most powerful ways to understand how a world is prefigured, made and acts†. Mitchell (1990, pp. 67-71) explains the design process as one that depending upon the context, takes on differing forms. He explains that the most usual computational variations represent transformations, which he terms as unary, as well as binary operations of shapes as represented in either two dimensional drawings, and or three dimensional geographic models (Mitchell, 1990, pp. 68-69). Mitchell (1993, p. 25) states that there are areas in computer-aided design that fail to support creativity, citing shape emergence as an example. Mitchell (1993, p. 25) argues that: â€Å"that design intentions evolve through the course of a creative design process, that these intentions determine how emergent shapes in drawings will be recognized, interpreted, and reinterpreted, and that interpretation (and reinterpretation) of emergent shapes plays a crucial role in directing design explorations. Traditional computer-aided design systems do not effectively support creative design because they provide only very limited and inflexible ways of interpreting shapes.† In elaborating on the foregoing Mitchell (1993, p. 25) adds â€Å"†¦Computer-aided design systems can, however, be developed on an alternative foundation that provides the necessary flexibility†. Jun and Kim (2003) have a differing opinion of the preceding. They argue that shape semantics in CAD systems offer the potential for the emergence of shape semantics. In presenting their view, Jun and Kim (2003) offer the following rationale: â€Å"Drawings in the early phase of design support both continuity and change in a process of design through the use of two different types of drawings (1): context drawings which hold the evolving design decisions, and exploration drawings which are abstracted from the context drawing and act as graphic probes to investigate selected issues. The notion of emergence in design is found here. The ambiguity of the exploration drawings enables a designer to read more out of a drawing than he or she puts into it; that is, to generate new meanings within the design task. Through exploring drawings that are ambiguous until concept formation (2) is reached, various interpretations, in particular in visual aspect, are possible. As a consequence new drawings emerge. This process plays a crucial role to develop conceptual form in architectural design.† The limitations found in CAD systems are based in the fact that they are fixed, in terms of the representation that are embedded (Jun and Kim, 2003). They argue that there are three types of emergence in the architectural field, â€Å"†¦ shape emergence, shape semantics, and style emergence† (Jun and Kim, 2003). The rationale for this brief look at emergent shape semantics is that it represents a visual design concept, thus representing a segment of creativity (Jun and Kim, 2003). An alternative view of computers and creativity is offered by Kathleen Gibson, an associate professor of design and environmental analysis, who believes that computers actually aid in increasing creativity (Winter, 2003). Professor Gibsons unconventional approach is based upon the rationale that the designer can look at a multitude of differing examples, shapes, configuration and styles as part of their own internal creative processes and potential come up with ideas, shapes, and approaches that they may not have worked on without the aide of a computer to run through variations (Winter, 2003). Mathias (1993) advises that the more time and input designers spend on conceptualising through drawing, visualising as well as re-evaluating designs, the more they, in general, generate new information through multiple reviews and analysis, also resulting in reasoned explanations concerning problems, and proposed solutions. Lawson (1980, p. 6) advises that design represents a mental process that is highly organised, that is capable of manipulating differing as well as many kinds of information. He adds that the preceding blends that data into a set of ideas that is coherent, and finally results on the generation of ideas related to the process (Lawson, 1980, p. 6). Design, as shown throughout this examination, is a process, involving creativity, mental reviews, the manipulation of data and ideas, along with design possibilities, and then synthesising the process toward the end solution. In looking closely at the foregoing, it can easily be deduced that the limitations of the foregoin g are represented by the breathe of experience, exposure and mental foundation bank of the designer. This thus further explains why Mathias (1993) makes his statement that the more time designers spend on ‘drawing, visualising as well as re-evaluating designs, the more they, in general, generate new information through multiple reviews and analysis, the more they see other approaches, solutions and ways in which to accomplish the task, thus heightening their creativity. The explanation of the design process foregoing represents the use of non-creative facets, such as a systematic approach to the design issues and problems (Browne and Smith, 1993, pp. 1209-1218). Hertz (1992, pp. 396) brings forth what he terms as the mental synthesis-creation cycle, which represents the process of exploring alternatives in the development of the design that solves the end product and or building / structure. This represents the same approach, in general conception, as offered by Lawson (1980, p. 6). Chapter 3 Creativity Creativity, as stated by Turner (1994, p. 21) represents â€Å"†¦ the bringing forth of an original product of the human mind †¦Ã¢â‚¬ , which also has what he terms as its â€Å"†¦ mundane side as well†. The creative process is present in all of us. It represents our approach to problem solving for issues that we have not experienced before, through utilising past knowledge combined in new ways to result in a solution (Turner, 1994, p. 21). In equating creativity Weisberg (1986, p. 10) tell us that a solution is creative if it has significant novelty, and is useful. In order to qualify as creative, the new approach, and or solution must be new as well as different from those that preceded it, and, those differences need to be significant (Weisberg, 1986, pp. 12-13). The utility, usefulness, is the second facet present in a creative solution, it must solve the problem in a new, and better manner than those that preceded it, that can include at less cost, fewer parts, faster response time, etc. (Weisberg, 1986, pp. 12-13). In the design process, Cross (1986, p. 15) advises that the special ways in which designers think is embedded in their visual thinking process. Their process of creativity is based in lines, relationships, drawings and formulas representing their approach to problems (Cross 1986, p. 17-18). It must be noted that Dorst et al (1991, pp. 39-40) brought forth that the field of study in terms of design thinking was found lacking in three important areas. Dorst el al (1991, p. 42) identified the preceding as 1. a lack of research clarity, 2. lack of consistency in the tools, methods and theories utilised, and 3. the lack of a common unifying purpose. In defining design thinking, Dorst et al (1991, p. 43) advise that it represents the totality of cognitive activities during the design. The preceding is called ‘design reasoning that is distinguished from inituition as a result of the conscious as well as predictable use of rules representing inference for the outcomes of using and mani pulating design information. The preceding brings forth the facet of intuition as an important part of the process (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46). It, intuition, resides in the subconscious, which represents the synthesis of experiences, ideas, new approaches and concepts to result in approaches (Dorst et al , 1991, p. 46). In subjecting the preceding to experimentation, Dorst et al (1991, p. 46-48) utilised four designers in a reasoning task that was comprised of a series of architectural drawings for buildings of modest size containing 9 errors. The designers had to locate the errors in a think aloud mode to let their processes be known, which was being recorded, and also making sketches, along with marking the drawings (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). Later analysis of the recordings resulted in the formulation of two groupings. One represented the mental process of new design generation through changes in the drawings and designs (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). The second category revealed that the verbal statements made led to new information generation that built upon prior statements they uttered aloud (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). Their prior histories and experiences represented the database to ascertain the errors, and pose solutions. In commenting upon this Dorst et al (1991, p. 46-48) noted th at the resulting changes were not novel, nor creative, but did solve the errors. The purpose of the foregoing is that the designers were only given a limited time frame in which to conduct their reviews, which demonstrated visual thinking as well as visual reasoning processes (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). The importance of the preceding is that it brought forth the manner in which designers use visual thinking to stimulate their processes. Wiggins and Schon (1992, pp. 45-51) provide illumination to this direction in advising that drawings and representation represent the manner in which designers communicate, not only with themselves, they also use it to communicate with others in furtherance of their ideas. Important in the preceding, is that designers employ visual thinking that consists of three types of visual imagery. The preceding is represented by what they see, what they imagine, and what they draw (McKim, 1980, p. 26). The foregoing is a highly important point in this examination, thus the rationale for the exploration these areas. Drawings and other visual representations aid in the stimulation process. It is the combination of these factors that are utilised by designers in the process of creating new designs and creative solutions. Further elaboration on this process is important in understanding the manner in which visual representations aid the design, and creative processes. Wiggins and Schon (1992, pp. 102-122) tell us that drawings help the designer in seeing, interpreting what can be potentially moved, re-evaluated, and or transformed. Tovey (1989, pp. 26-31) argues that seeing is an important part of the design process as it aids the designer in imaging, which prompts creativity and drawing. The preceding three processes work together to encourage visual thinking. The connection between the use of computers as an aid in this process will be further explored to draw upon examples that either support or refute if generative design impacts the designer, and if it aids or diminishes creativity. Herbert (1988, pp. 26-40), in his exploration of the design process states that once a designer begins to perceive the task, images, and or pictures representing solutions start to be generated in the designers mind. He adds that in the beginning of the process, these images, pictures, ideas and thoughts are not really well defined, thus needing further development (Herbert, 1988, pp. 26-40). The next stage on the process moves towards more refinement as potential solutions, a means to these ends and the routes and ideas as to how to arrive there start to develop (Herbert, 1988, pp. 26-40). The foregoing was brought forth by Mathias (1993) who advised that designer tends to utilise drawing as a means to move to developing their first ideas, and in later stages of the process, drawings are utilised for synthesis. This is what Mathias (1993) describes as stepping back and then forward in the mental processes to be engaged, and then reflect on what has been thought, to re-engage the pro cess again. Mathias (1993, pp. 113) diagrams the preceding as follows: Diagram 1 Designers Framework for Idea Development (Mathias, 1993, p. 113) Analysis of problem statement Holistic solution concept Problem Solution concept Convergence Exploration Validation Solution Mathias (1993) and McKim (1980) follow the same conceptual foundation in terms of imagery (drawings), representing a foundational facet in the design process. The preceding is part of the creative mental synthesis process whereby ideas begin as a result of engagement with the project. Verstijnen (1997), conducted experiments based upon the research methods of Finke (1990) as well as Helstrup and Anderson (1993). The six experiments conducted by Verstijnen (1997) used undergraduate industrial design engineering and psychology students to investigate emergent figures and drawing / sketching relationships. The experiment called for some students to utilise sketching and drawing, and the others to use mental processes only in resolving the problem of wire frame drawings that had figures embedded (Verstijnen, 1997). The second experiment represented the investigation of creative mental synthesis tasking asked to generate shapes that were creative based upon a cube, sphere and cone. The results indicated that the restrictions of memory was not a motivating factor in sketching as an aid in creative mental synthesis experiments (Verstijnen, 1997). In the reinterpretation of shapes, the task proved difficult based upon the utilisation of imagery alone, thus suggesting an aid was needed, drawing (Verstijnen, 1997). She added that sketching for use in synthesis may not play a significant, and or important role, however in creative mental synthesis, sketching helped to yield a higher number of creative forms (Verstijnen, 1997). A comparison of the engineering students, and non-students was not included in her study (Verstijnen, 1997). From the foregoing, the data thus far reviewed seemingly indicates that visual thinking represents an important facet of creative mental synthesis, which is important in the design of new objects. The foregoing also seems to point to the fact that the manipulation of visual images in a mental mode is an important aspect of mental creative synthesis. In addition, the preceding seems to also point to the fact that drawing is important in supporting the process of creative synthesis in new design. The use of the word seemingly and seem are utilised as there is little to no empirical evidence to support the preceding, thus the views are based upon the views as expressed by a number of authors and researchers. Chapter 4 Generative Design In generative design, the description and design of relationships and components is accomplished by the use of powerful algorithms (MacDonald et al, 2005). These algorithms permit users to manipulate geometry and dynamically model through the application of rules that capture relationships in geometric features, along the defining of complex forms (MacDonald et al, 2005). Under a generative design program, the designer, utilising a CAD tool that specifies parameters and the restraints, the program then generates a number of outcomes that the designer then utilises as input, and or for another generation of shapes, forms or approaches, solutions (MacDonald et al, 2005). The generative design approach is applicable in the whole design process, once the parameters have been input and modified (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999). Generative design has been employed in the development of cars, cell phones, structures and other areas. CAD and Design Automation software has long been utilised to optimise the assembly of differing design elements. Through the use of visualisation software, designers are able to see the results without having to build prototypes. In the generative design methodology, outcomes are rendered after a detailed and high level of input specification, thus saving time over the CAD and Design Automation approach that requires time in that each instance of an idea has to be imagined, manually expressed, and evaluated (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999). On the most basic level, generative design systems consist of four elements (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999): design representation, generation engine, expression engine, mechanism for evaluation and selection of the new generated specifications The following, further explains the workings within these steps (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999): design representation, The design representation are input as a set of parameters, along with the corresponding constraints. In the preceding, the parameter sets represent the genetic design elements, defining the form as well as structural aspects. The constraint set controls the aesthetic as well as the fabrication facets, meaning the limitations as afforded by the material dynamics to be utilised. The foregoing constraints, and rules thus place a limit on the range of the generated design. generation engine This aspect of the generative design process represents the internal process that generates the new design descriptions. It represents a set of prototype design descriptions that are also termed as ‘parents, and then utilises the algorithm to take the parameter sets and combine them into new descriptions, or children. In general, the algorithms use operations that are based upon the concepts found in the mutation and crossover aspects found in genetics. The preceding thus ensures that the descriptions, children, are drawn from the parameter values as contained in the prototype set. expression engine In the process of generative design, the expression engine interprets the descriptions, rendering them into a structure or model. The process can be set so that it is modular, thus permitting it to be able to support a host of alternative interpretations. mechanism for evaluation and selection of the new generated specifications The generative design approach is based upon having an objective function that evaluates the fitness output of the specifications of the design. In creative design area this facet is usually embedded in the human using the system. The foregoing is termed the human user in the loop as it provides a more intelligent and analytic capability as opposed to computed functions. The preceding is described as being a better match for the ranges of possibilities offered by the generative approach. Generative design offers the ability for designers to try as many ideas as possible, a critical facet when time is a constraining factor. It permits designers to thus present a variety of solutions that can thus be evaluated internally and or through focus group testing to refine the process and move to the final design variables. The foregoing recognises the fact that the design process has always been a process that is subject to the acceptance of the end user, which is either the client, or the general public. It, generative design, thus represents a means to work through a wide variety of approaches to achieve faster approximations of what will work. Chapter 5 The Role of Computers If computers are potentially limiting, and or taking away design creativity, it would seem appropriate to example the role of computers in the design process and attending questions. In the pragmatic sense, unlimited time to render and use a design is not a function of the design process. Whatever the function, be it architecture or products, there is a limited time frame for the design process to take shape, evolve, become proven through mathematical, structural, component material and cost / build considerations. The preceding represent constraints on the process that are real as well as binding. Computers have advanced the process of design through software such as CAD that enable users to perform a number of functions in time saving fashion. The preceding takes in such functions as (SAP, 2006): wire frame geometry creation, solid modelling, 3D parametric, freeform surfaces, automated assembly design, engineering drawings from solid models, re-utilisation of design components ease on design modification and the generation of multiple versions, automated generation of design components, design simulation without prototype building, data exchange, as an aid in visualisation process for areas such as rotation, shading, etc., design studies as a few of the more important, or used functions. In equating this segment of the examination, the question of creativity resurfaces. As previously mentioned by Turner (1994, p. 21), creativity brings  ·Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ forth of an original product of the human mind †¦Ã¢â‚¬ . In the design process, it aids in the production of multiple view, as well as ideas. Gero (1991) indicates that there are, in his view, five creative design processes that result in the introduction of new variables in the design prototype. These are (Gero, 1991): Combination Mutation Analogy First Principles, and Emergence The following sets forth the preceding in more detail Combination Gero (1991) tells us that ‘combination represents the combining of two or more prototype designs, with the new resulting variable introduced into the original from the former. Within this process, mutation represents the alteration of variables as accomplished by external agents (Gero, 1991). Mutation Within the preceding process, mutation represents the alteration of variables as accomplished by external agents (Gero, 1991). Through mutation, new variables can result due to extrapolation, and or combination of the variables (Gero, 1991). Analogy This is also known as ‘case-based reasoning, representing structural elements applied by one prototype design into another design problem, as well as the use of past processes for a new design problem (Gero, 1991). First Principles The above is a process whereby new relational knowledge is logically derived from the behaviour of existing structures without the knowledge of the prototype (Gero, 1991). Emergence The process of inferring structural elements that are new through the extension of elements that exist, represents emergence (Gero, 1991). Indurkhya (2002), in defining creativity from a different perspective, provides insight into Geros (1991) concept of new variable introduction. H

Monday, August 19, 2019

Job Shadowing :: essays research papers

I selected to job shadow my mom actually because I couldn’t find anyone to shadow in the career that I wanted, so my only other choice was to do my mom. I wasn’t really too interested in doing that job at first, but that’s what I needed to do. I spent my day watching and helping my mom checking out stock systems and how it works. I was also able to use the office equipment. I wore nice black pants with a nice sweater. We left the building for lunch, and went somewhere else to eat, like my mom does a lot of the time. During the interview, I asked her the questions, and she answered, explaining as she went along, and I was not able to catch it all. So I learned a whole lot about the job by doing the interview. I left at about 2:00 to 3:00 (I am not too sure exactly when) because my mom had some important work she needed to do, that I really couldn’t help with. My favorite experience that day was actually finding out how stocks work, saving money, and inform ation like that. The work area where I went was inside a building. The employees aren’t alone; there are other people’s desks near by. This job is certainly not hectic and tense, its more quiet and clam. Sometimes people are walking by, or come in to talk to them though. There are a lot of glass windows, whether it for looking outside, or into the more private office, there is quite a lot of glass, and desks are scattered throughout the building. Some of the equipment used is copy machines, fax machines, and printers. There are computers and phones on the employee’s desks. By shadowing my mom, I learned a whole lot about trading and selling stocks. I also learned how the employees have to deal with clients that have problems or questions about their stock. So I know what kind of skills I need, and what I have to do to be a stockbroker. This experience of job shadowing won’t really impact my future career decision, because although it was a good and informational experience , it’s not really the kind of career I want to do when I get older.

Nuclear Disarmament Essay -- Essays Papers

Nuclear Disarmament Since the early 1940’s, two world powers, the U.S. and USSR (currently Russia), have been increasing their nuclear weapons arsenal. In recent years, many other countries, such as: India, Great Britain, France, China, Pakistan, and Israel have begun nuclear stockpiles. Since the Cold War has ended and the USSR collapsed, nuclear weapons have been left unguarded or missing. The effect of this lack of security has raised the world’s awareness on attempting to control nuclear stockpiles. Also, there are concerns of nuclear power plants producing uranium and plutonium as a by-product; the two fuels are used in producing nuclear devices. Although these nuclear power plants were never meant to produce uranium and plutonium, countries have left it available to civilians for research and testing.1 Nuclear bombs can be a result of this experimenting, which is why some form of disarmament and a system of verification on nuclear control needs to be implemented by government officia ls. Nuclear weapons are explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale and are used primarily in military applications. The first atomic bomb, which was tested on July 16, 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico, represented a completely new type of artificial explosives. Nuclear explosions involve energy sources within the core or nucleus, of the atom. The atomic bomb gains its power from the splitting, or fission, of all the atomic nuclei in several kilograms of plutonium. A sphere about the size of a baseball produces an explosion equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. This is a large amount of power for a nuclear weapon. The atomic bomb was developed, constructed, and tested during the Manhattan Project. This massive United States... implemented in order to control the use of nuclear weapons within today’s society because the current systems have not been successful in securing nuclear devices. Until more successful regulations have been made, the problem of controlling nuclear power will not be solved. ENDNOTES 1 â€Å" The Problem.† NCI. (1 July 1996). 2 Handbook of Nuclear Technology (New York: Nucleonics, 1980) pg. 115. 3 Handbook of Nuclear Technology, pg. 110 4 Handbook of Nuclear Technology, pg. 112-114. 5 NCI 6 NCI 7 NCI 8 â€Å"Verification.† The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. (Jan. 1994). 9 The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons 10 NCI 11 The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Symbols in Susan Glaspells Trifles Essay -- Symbolism Glaspell Trifle

Symbols in Susan Glaspell's Trifles In the play titled Trifles, by Susan Glaspell, Minnie Foster Wright is being accused of murdering her husband, John. In this production, Mrs. Wright is consistently referenced, and although she is not witnessed, she is very recognizable. There are important symbols in this play that signifies Mrs. Wright and her existence as it once was and as it currently exists to be. Particularly the canary, this symbolizes Mrs. Wright's long forgotten past. Additionally, the birdcage, this symbolizes her life as it currently exists. Certainly the quilt is a symbol, which is an important clue on how Mr. Wright was killed. In addition, the rocking chair, this symbolizes her life as it has diminished throughout the duration of her most recently survived years. Lastly, but not least, the containers of cherry preserves that seem to be a symbol of the warmth and compassion that she has yet to discover in her life. Every one of these symbolizes and characterizes Mrs. Wright?s character and her existenc e in the play. The canary and the birdcage are symbolic to Mrs. Wright?s life in the way that the bird represents her, and the cage represents her life and the way she was made to live. Mrs. Hale compares the canary that she and Mrs. Peters discover to Mrs. Wright, when Mrs. Hale refers to Mrs. Wright as ?kind of like a bird herself?real sweet and pretty, but kind of timid and?fluttery.? Minnie Foster was a distinctly different woman than Minnie Foster ...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Price Discrimination

Price discrimination Price discrimination is the practice of charging a different price for the same good or service. There are three of types of price discrimination – first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree price discrimination. First degree First-degree discrimination, alternatively known as perfect price discrimination, occurs when a firm charges a different price for every unit consumed. The firm is able to charge the maximum possible price for each unit which enables the firm to capture all available consumer surplus for itself.In practice, first-degree discrimination is rare. Second degree Second-degree price discrimination means charging a different price for different quantities, such as quantity discounts for bulk purchases. Third degree Third-degree price discrimination means charging a different price to different consumer groups. For example, rail and tube travellers can be subdivided into commuter and casual travellers, and cinema goers can be subdivide int o adults and children.Splitting the market into peak and off peak use is very common and occurs with gas, electricity, and telephone supply, as well as gym membership and parking charges. Third-degree discrimination is the commonest type. Necessary conditions for successful discrimination Price discrimination can only occur if certain conditions are met. 1. The firm must be able to identify different market segments, such as domestic users and industrial users. 2. Different segments must have different price elasticities (PEDs). 3.Markets must be kept separate, either by time, physical distance and nature of use, such as Microsoft Office ‘Schools’ edition which is only available to educational institutions, at a lower price. 4. There must be no seepage between the two markets, which means that a consumer cannot purchase at the low price in the elastic sub-market, and then re-sell to other consumers in the inelastic sub-market, at a higher price. 5. The firm must have so me degree of monopoly power. Video Diagram for price discriminationIf we assume marginal cost (MC) is constant across all markets, whether or not the market is divided, it will equal average total cost (ATC). Profit maximisation will occur at the price and output where MC = MR. If the market can be separated, the price and output in the inelastic sub-market will be P and Q and P1 and Q1 in the elastic sub-market. When the markets are separated, profits will be the area MC, P,X,Y + MC1,P1,X1,Y1. If the market cannot be separated, and the two submarkets are combined, profits will be the area MC2,P2,X2,Y2.If the profit from separating the sub-markets is greater than for combining the sub-markets, then the rational profit maximizing monopolist will price discriminate. Market separation and elasticity Discrimination is only worth undertaking if the profit from separating the markets is greater than from keeping the markets combined, and this will depend upon the elasticities of demand in the sub-markets. Consumers in the inelastic sub-market will be charged the higher price, and those in the elastic sub-market will be charged the lower price.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Bata Proposal

Proposal For The Student Internship Report Semester: Fall 2012 Title of the Report: Automation and Update of the Employee Profile in BATA Shoe Co. (BD) Ltd. Rationale for Selecting the Report: I am Doing my internship in BATA shoe Co. (BD) Ltd. and currently working in the department of Human Resource Management. As BATA is a production based company and the company has to deal with man power frequently and in a huge amount. And for managing this huge man power HRD plays a huge role. And one of the biggest company in our country and in the world they are practicing Human resource Management for a long time.As they are practicing it for a long time now, previously they were doing the operations of HR in manual way but by time they got into Automation. They were keeping the data into HRIS software for a long now but in the old HRIS software many fields were missing and now they have decided to develop new HRIS software and add some new fields to it which is very important for the organ ization. By this new software they will get fully updated HRIS software with new information about all the employees, so that they will e able to use it whenever they need.And now I am helping the HR department of BATA to update the employee profile by assisting them to fill up the employee information field and collect the up-to-date information about all the employees of the organization. And giving input into the software. I think this will help me understand the process how HRIS of BATA shoe Co. (BD) Ltd. Works and how it will help the organization as well as the department of HR. it is to see how they manage the personnel through this HRIS software. Background of BATA Shoe: Bata Ltd. is a privately owned global shoe manufacturer and retailer headquartered in Ontario, Canada.The company is led by a third generation of the Bata family. With An operation in 68 countries, Bata is organized into four business units. Bata Canada, based In Toronto, serves the Canadian market with 250 stores. Based in Paris, Bata Europe Serves the European market with 500 stores. With supervision located in Singapore, Bata International boasts 3,000 stores to serve markets in Africa, the Pacific, and Asia, Finally, Bata Latin America, operating out of Mexico City, sells footwear throughout Latin America. All told, Bata owns more than 4,700 retail stores and 46 production facilities.Total employment for the company exceeds 50,000. 1894: The Bata family establishes a company in Zlin, located in what is now the Czech Republic. 1932: Founder Tomas Bata dies in an airplane accident. 1939: The Company relocates to Canada after the movement of German military forces Into Eastern Europe. 1945: Czechoslovakia business operations are nationalized by the new communist Government following World War II. 1991: Bata returns to the Czech Republic following fall of the communist regime. 1994: Thomas J. Bata, the son of the company's founder, retires. 1962: Started in Bangladesh 2001: Thomas J. B ata, Jr. becomes chairman and CEO. Bata Bangladesh is affiliated to the Bata Shoe Organization, the world's largest footwear Manufacturing and marketing organization.Started operation in Bangladesh in 1962, Incorporation in Bangladesh in 1972. Currently, Bata Bangladesh operates 2 manufacturing plant Tongi and Dhamrai, Bata Bangladesh is producing around 110,000 pairs of shoes daily. It has a modern tannery With the latest technological facilities to process 5 million square feet of leather yearly. Objectives: General Objectives: The general objective of the internship report is to learn how the HRIS works in the BATA Shoe Co. BD) Ltd. and the organizational behavior how the corporate culture works in the organization. I can also compare the practical and theoretical knowledge of Human Resource Management and HRIS. Specific Objectives: †¢It will help me to complete my undergraduate program †¢I will be able to know the HR process of BATA †¢It will also be useful for me to understand about the HRIS in BATA. Submitted By: Name of the Student (Intern): Fahmi Rahmat Nawaz ID No# 09-14444-2 Major: Human Resource Management (HRM) Date: 07-11-2012 Action by the Supervisor: Approved: Disapproved: Approved With Revision:

Thursday, August 15, 2019

The Automotive Industry and Green Awareness

After suffering massive market losses to foreign cars which were considered to be fuel efficient, American automotive industry has reawakened to the green awareness campaign advocated by consumers, which is represent the future of the industry.There has been increased call by the consumers for the American auto industry to develop cars which emits less green house gases to save the environment.The industry has responded by putting efforts on development of electric cars and hybrid plug-in in vehicles to adapt to the market needs and to sustain the growth of the economy.Green technology presents the future and the American automotive industry must grow along this line to compete effectively in the market.With a large segment of their market lost to foreign automakers, the American auto industry and the government in general responded by taking measures to enforce a green auto industry. For example California passed a law which required 2% all the cars sold in the state to have zero em ission which led to the development of the electric cars (Kilkenny, 2006). However, conspiracy between leading auto makers like Ford and the oil industry led to the mysteriously death of the car (Shnayerson, 2006).Realizing that the future of the auto industry is green, the industry has responded by investing in research and design which has seen the development of hybrid and plug-in hybrid cars, electric cars, lithium batteries which will support the future green auto industry, and various innovations in auto components. These inventions are likely to see the end of the use of gasoline powered engines which have been the leading environmental polluter. (Kaho, 2008)The future of the auto industry is green. In order to compete effectively with other auto makers in the world, and ensure the contribution to the industry to economic growth and sustainability American auto industry must continue with their efforts in the development of a green auto industry. (Globe, 2008)The auto industr y green awareness is an important topic of concern to all Americans and the rest of the world. Our country is still the leading emitter of green house gases to the atmosphere and the auto industry has been one of the leading contributors to this emission.Reference:Globe, (2008): Future auto motive industry. Globe Foundation, March 2008Kaho, T. (2008):Â   2008 Washington Auto Show: Technology and green future. GREENCAR.comKilkenny, N. (2006): Who killed Electric Car? Accessed from on 4th August 2008Shnayerson, M. (2006): The Inside Story of GM's Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. Random House publishers

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom Essay

In the book â€Å" The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom† by Yochai Benkler, he discussed the diversity of network and its impact to different aspects of society. Benklers discussed that technology is a big part of the development that had occurred. Technology is a tool used to a more effective communication. Media today uses these technologies to provide assurance that the message is delivered to the people. Internet has become a fast growing form of information source and communication tool. With this expansion comes its effect of distributing the main structure of producing and allocating information, culture and knowledge. Information is just a click away. This became a common source of reference whenever one wants to know something. This is said to be an open source to the public. In the process of acquiring this information, the most of the intelligence and effort shared by the author has the potential of being reused due to exposure. The complex network enables to diffuse the core information and be used by other as their own. Because of these economic characteristics, the mass-media model of information and cultural production and transmission became the dominant form of public communication in the twentieth century. Equally important is the example of the news media: fair use is healthy and vigorous in daily broadcast television, where references to popular films, classic TV programs, archival images, and popular songs are constant and routinely unlicensed. Internet is now on its constant development and through this communication is possible no matter how distant it is. The property right at issue is almost entirely a matter of respecting the authorship of the original work with the use of open source code, no less than with scholarly work. This sense of propriety, however, operates with a rigor in scholarship that exceeds the bounds of copyright law. Copyright only protects the author’s expression and wording of an idea from being used by another beyond the realm of fair use. By means of this, the author’s original idea can be protected and assured that his name will be credited when his work was used. The other issue that Benkler stated that the Media is also an open source where there is a distribution of new knowledge which we may apply to our culture and social traits as individuals. These have little impacts in small daily activities as we cannot notice, which at some point we may see that we had changed eventually. Some values that had been perceived are caused by these emerging networks. Since this had also been an environment to us and we need to adapt to these changes. Cultural production in the form of the networked information economy offers individuals a greater participatory role in making the culture they occupy and makes the culture more transparent to its inhabitants. On my understanding, it is true that advancement in these aspects is also giving development on human meaning and communication. Wide network can provide the potential for better human welfare and development and freedom. Human perception is perceived and improved constantly. We can also observe that most of us rely on computers. We can practice skills and acquire additional knowledge through this wide scope of information that is open to the public. Whether how small the task is, it still contributes to one’s personal enhancement through technological experience. This provides us a more complex human development. Another optimism of Benkler which I agree is that because of enhanced technology and wide network of information, we practice and shape the freedom in the society. This has impact on the modern liberal society. Changes in the technological, economic, and social affordances of the networked information environment affect a series of core commitments of a wide range of liberal democracies. Benklers’ optimism towards these changes is in accord to my opinion. Accessibility of media is not a problem anymore. Proliferation of networks has provided the industry, culture and social contributions to the changing society. Because of technological advancement and network expansion, our jobs became easier and more efficient. Also, with the new invented tools and equipment, we can do things we only imagine that would be possible. But with this progress comes with the disadvantages of the complex network that is still extending. One is the exposure of information where it can be abused by the users. They can use them and not acknowledge the author. In this issue, the end user takes the credit of the idea which is not his. This common crime happens commonly on the use of the internet. References: Benkler,Yochai. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. (2005) Documentary Filmmakers Statement of Best Practices in Fair Use. (2005). www. centerforsocialmedia. org/fairuse. htm Willinsky, John. The Unacknowledged Convergence Of Open Source, Open Access, and Open Science. First Monday. (July 2005) www. firstmonday. org/issues/issue10_8/willinsky/

Discussion Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion - Movie Review Example The French flag on her hand reinforces values of revolution into the revolutionists. The flag carries message of equality, fraternity, and liberty amid struggle for change of governance system in France. Pictures on the foreground of deceased members of both sides of the political divide only serve to explain how catastrophic the effects of the revolution were. The paintings of dead bodies, most probably in their bedroom, also point to the severity of the adverse impacts of the revolutionary struggle. Furthermore, there is a sense of absolute unity portrayed by Delacroix in the painting. Beside the allegorical figure, there are two men; one is a member of the middle-class, and the other is an artisan. The two men, although not belonging to the same class, fight together and applauds the new monarch thereby portray the superiority of the people. On the paintings extreme right, the twin towers of Notre Dame rises above the thick battle smoke. The scene further explains what ensued during the revolution and the

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Society - Essay Example The social roots of delinquency have been analyzed using theories developed by sociologists as well as criminologists. Some of them view delinquency as function of one individual while others describe it from the macro level of societal structure (Bernard 1984). The theories that will be presented here will be applicable to analyze of crime and delinquency in society. Society has embedded many ideas promoting the success in life. It puts a large emphasis on money, power, commodities, and material goods to prove who we are and how much one has accomplished. Unfortunately we are all given the idea that success is one universal lifestyle and we should all aim to work towards it. However, only few have the means to attain these goals. In this paper I will discuss the correlation between social classes and delinquency. It is important to find the root of the delinquency in order to start eliminating it, leading to a brighter future for those in a lower-class, enabling the youth to have fa ir opportunities in society. It is a widespread opinion that youth from lower socioeconomic class is more open for delinquency and crime. Through the theories of such sociologists as Merton, Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin I will try to prove that this opinion is right. The strain theory is similar to the structural functionalism and argues that "people who commit crimes have basically the same values as everybody else.., however, the avenues for the achievement of success are greatly restricted for people in the lower class. Thus, they are faced with a cruel dilemma: either they abandon the major American values of success and prosperity or they abandon another - obedience of the law" (Leighninger 331). Theories Merton's Strain Theory Strain theory is mainly applied to juvenile delinquency among the boys of lower class and is based on the idea that the value of success they have is shared with the larger culture, but the stratified socialization makes it impossible to compete effectively. Therefore, this pressure is causing the strain and young adults are trying to resolve it. The condition of the society prevents the poor youth from attaining success and lead to defiance of socially accepted norms. Merton has stated that sometimes the society is structured in the way promoting delinquency. As Calhoun has specified "some social structures exert a definite pressure on persons in society to engage in non conforming behavior" (174). Merton was focused on American society because United States is one of the richest countries in the world but the wealth is not equally distributed. Too much emphasis is being made on financial wellbeing. Children grow up with the dreams to become a millionaire. Distress and strain resul t from this pressure - even parents say to their children that if they do not go to college they will be lower class. Criminal activity is like the struggle to preserve the self esteem. Robert Merton added to Durkheim's concept and focused on the idea of strain between aspirations and expectations in society. According to Merton anomie was the state of structural strain between the almost universal cultural goals of the "American Dream" and the much more restricted institutionalized means for achieving them (Deutchmann p.246). Merton believes deviance is a form of adaptation to the strain that exists between, "culturally prescribed aspirations and socially structured avenues for

Monday, August 12, 2019

My nursing ethics as a nurse Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

My nursing ethics as a nurse - Essay Example Man in his supreme mental capacity has made life in a more survival state but the question of ethical and moral acceptability has been raised since man intervened with life’s natural process. Nurses and other health care professionals are the ones in the frontline of bridging man’s full health potential thus making life even longer. On a personal point of view, the degree of respect to life as a health care professional is at its utmost. The scope of nursing as well as medical practice has opened ideal views of life in its respect to health that is catered to all individuals regardless of gender, color and race, thus no life is to be spared (The President’s Council on Bioethics, 2003; US National Library of Medicine, 2012 ). Ethically and morally, the figure of a nurse upholds life’s dignity but differences in beliefs, morals and character brings out different stories. Practice in the scope of nursing is complex but the complexities did not stop nurses fro m being true advocates of health. Instead the healthcare world developed codes to clearly define the scope of acceptable practice, thus no one will be placed neither above nor below it. As a nurse, The Code of Ethics for Nurses, have personally shaped me into becoming the ideal nurse as an advocate of life and health. It provides nurses with a framework to use in ethical analysis and decision making. Hence it establishes the ethical standard for the practice of nursing defining what is acceptable in the ethical views that does not favor any group, religion or status but only favors the value of life and service (American Nurses Association, 2010). Personally the values that have greatly influenced my view and philosophy of nursing are respect for human life, compassion, professionalism, social responsibility and dedication. All these values were not inherent but were rather acquired during the nursing degree. Respect for human life has always been there and the joy it brings when sa ving someone’s life out of danger and potential harm by means of service and compassion is priceless. Social responsibility is a very important value to be an effective nurse. It is being an advocate of one another stating that responsibility does not end with one person alone but extends to the whole society and one must act accordingly to contribute for the greater good. This distinguishes a nurse who does work over time because service is needed from the nurse who does over time work because monetary value is considered. Nursing is a vocation rather than a profession, to be an effective nurse is to understand that your service is no longer yours nor to the workplace you work for but is to the people in need. How many have you been called in the neighborhood for an emergency? Yes, the bother can be something but the feeling of saving someone’s life is more than anything. Ethics and values are significant words in the world of nursing for it greatly affect how nursing services are delivered by a nurse. Ethics defines actions acceptable if it is done in ways which are consistent with one’s beliefs (Navran, 2010). Nursing practice is composed of many concepts that sometimes promote, adhere or contrasts with another. That is why nurses are sometimes caught in the dilemma brought about by clash of ideas. Ethical dilemmas such as DNR consent or advance directives can greatly affect the way nurses give care to patients. DNR for example can come in